Automated Water Vending Machine using Arduino Uno for Hot, Cold, and Normal Water
issue 2

Automated Water Vending Machine using Arduino Uno for Hot, Cold, and Normal Water

Nikhil R Karande,


Tanay Bhandarkar, Sourabh B Sharma, Pratik Chaudhari, Shruti Sharma, Manohar Chaudhary.

PG Students, Department of Information Technology, SSBT’s COET Jalgaon, India.

Nitin P Jagtap

Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology, SSBT’s COET Jalgaon, India.


We are all aware in 21st century there is a big water crisis in spite of having 72% water on earth. Our aim to provide drinkable water to the areas where there are custom requirements like hot water in winter, cold water in summer, and normal water as per user choice. After doing some research in already developed water vending machines we conclude that there is hardly any prototype exists commercially which works on 12V DC power supply so we are attempting to do it. We are using small containers to test the feasibility of our project like 1-liter capacity for hot water, 450 ml capacity for cold water. We have implemented the sensors to save excess water flow in absent of water container and show current temperature of each container on dashboard. We have calibrated 5 Rupees coin on coin machine to process water dispensing for around 25 ml of water. We are giving three options to the user viz. hot, cold, and normal water user can request as per his/her choice. By doing this we are enabling the remote areas where electricity is a problem to get them provision of having this service with them. We are using Arduino Uno board for running this automated system with supporting elements like Peltier module, heater, coin machine to accept valid coin, relays to control switches and solenoid valves to control the water flow.

Keywords 12V DC, Arduino Uno, Cold, Hot, Normal, Peltier module, Vending Machine.


In this water vending machine, we are attempting to develop a machine which will dispense the water in three forms hot, cold and normal which will be operated using microcontroller and coin. User will insert the coin in the machine and selects the available options and accordingly water will be dispensing to the user.

In existing vending machines most of the developed countries vending machines are located at public places. These machines used for dispensing the cold drinks, food packets coffee, tea, etc.

Operation done using coin operated machine is most popular due to its easiness. Customer can request the water in various quantity using the various types of coins but in this system, we are checking its feasibility so we are working on only one coin i.e. 5 rupees coin. We got this idea from existing systems and thought to test in even lower power if it can dispense the water and matches the required rate. We also using single tap for releasing hot, cold and normal water which gives us advantage to saves cost of taps and unnecessary use of space.

We are using three water storage tanks in this system as follows:

  1. Primary Tank
  2. Hot Tank.
  3. Cold Tank.

Primary tank is the clean water storage where large amount of water is stored in tank at the higher level to create the pressure for solenoid valve. Hot tank is used to stored the hot water as a storage and dispenses it whenever user requests the hot water. Its temperature is keep adjusting using temperature sensors.

Cold water storage is used to store the cold water and it also keep cold water storage and delivers whenever use requested the cold water.

Primary water tank outlet with the pressure is connected to the main pipe which has the common valve for cooler module, heater module and direct connection for normal water. Cold module keeps the water cooling using pettier module and fans over it to cool other side of the pettier module and heater keeps heating water till the temperature reaches to hot drinkable water level.


1. Coffee vending machine:

It is a unique company in the industry that is committed to providing a quality range of automatic coffee vending machines. According to industry standards, the machine is manufactured by skilled professionals using high grade components and the latest technology. Due to its delicate operation and long service life, there is a high demand among consumers for the vending machine. Further, to ensure optimal performance, this machine is rigorously tested by quality experts on various quality parameters. This machine gives coffee when the coin is inserted.

The cost of this vending machine is: 100K

2. Milk Vending Machine

Automatic Milk Vending Machine is developed by professionals who use industry-approved materials and advanced technology. These products come in many specialties in the market which are tailored to customer demand. In addition, quality inspectors also test these products to provide the customer with a flawless range. Features: Easy Installation Trouble Free Operation Temperature Resistance Description: SS304 Construction Refrigerated Tank 4c. Single float with 20 liters of SS float balance tank to maintain temperature. The float balance tank used 3 port valves and 500 ml beaker as an extension of the main tank. Electronic Push Button / Remote Control Operated Panels are available with special buttons for 250 ML, 500 ML and 1000 ML Delivery on request for 2000 ML and 4000 ML Wholesale Sales. Multiple Vending Option Operation: Fix Type Calibration with 2X16 Character Crystal Display / Manual and Remote Battery Backup with Lightweight Wheels

 3. Automatic Snack Vending Machine

To meet the diverse demands of customers, they are engaged in manufacturing. A special range of automatic snack vending machine is export and supply.

Specifications: Dimensions H we x d mm): 1845 x 810 x 905 on axial lever port Optimum setting) Weight: 275 kg. Electrical: 230 V. 50 Hertz. 0.12 amps. Option: 26 Standard, 42 Maximum Factory Configuration: 9 Snacks. 10 Small Size Snacks. 7 candy. 200- 400 Fern Styling: Clam Front Application: Suitable for potato chips, cheese puffs and crackers. Features of Cookies, Cupcakes and Biscuits: Electronic Controller with Digit M1 Display Supports 24VDC Motorized Mechanism 2 Machines

Adjustable tray separation and height product load sensor for fast and easy product loading

Price: 2.75 lakes

 4. Coin operated water vending machine

Item: Water ATM / Pure Water Vending Machine Water Source: Municipal Tap Water / Raw Water Supply: AC 220 V 50 Hertz / AC 110 V 60 Hertz. Product Capacity (GPD): 400,600,800,1300,1600 and 3000 Water Tank Capacity: 200L UV Energy : 20W Ozone Capacity: 1000Mg Filling Flow Rate: 8L / Min Sale Method (Refund): IC Card + Coins + Paper Note Filling Bottle Size: 200ml, 500ml, 1L, 2L, 20 LTR (Simultaneous) One tap.) Filter Step: 9 Step Size:

L80cmxW68cmxH200cm Packing: Polly Wood Case for Carton or LCL LCD for FCL

Panel: 19-inch advertising technology

Price = l 5 Lakhs

5. Soda Vending Machine

High efficiency soda vending machine. Under the strict supervision of active professionals, the proposed machine will be developed using quality tested components and innovative technologies. The machine provided is used for a wide variety of manufacture

Drinks and soft drinks at bars, restaurants, clubs and many other places. Additionally, the soda machine offered is available to our patrons at pocket-friendly rates.


  • Greater quality
  • Fine finish
  • Reliable

Estimated Price: L 1.6 Lakhs / Unit

3. Literature Survey

Beginning with the advent of the 1980s, vending machines have always been a symbol of popular culture when children in television series or film schools used to drop coins to buy snacks or soda. Although vending machines are used today to spread foods and soda, the first vending machine was not invented for two purposes. Here is the story of why vending machines become what we know about them today.

The period of time

The first vending machine came from Roman Egypt in the 1st century AD and was invented by the Roman mathematician and engineer, Alexandria Hero. The people of the city invented a vending machine to extract a certain amount of holy water, so as not to take more than the temple. The hero of Alexandria actually created a device in which people could release tokens to release a certain amount of water. [4]

In 1615, England built a small machine to disperse tobacco.

In 1822, Richard Carlyle, an English bookseller and publisher, invented a machine and banned this work, allowing readers to buy them. In the 1850s and 60s, the first, fully automated vending machine to sell stamps and paperwork was introduced. By the 1880s, coin-operated vending machines had begun in London and Percival Everett invented a machine to spread envelopes, postcards and notepads. [1]

In 1887, Sweetmeat Automatic Delivery Company sold chocolates, chewing gum, perfumes and matches and set up many vending machines in England. In 1888, Thomas Adams Gum Company of the United States owned the first vending machine that sold tooty-fruity gum. In 1890, the first beverage-selling machine was set up in Paris, allowing people to buy various alcoholic beverages. Later, in the 1920s, soda-vending machines emerged. By 1902, a restaurant called Horn & Hordert opened, which coin was operated and the food and beverages released into the machine were destroyed. [3]

In 1907, one of the earliest models of modern gumball dispensing machines appeared. In the 1940s and 1950s, soda-vending machines were also popular. For this reason, Coca-Cola has increased its sales significantly and currently, has the largest number of vending machines in the world. [3]

In the past, cigarettes were usually sold in the United States through these machines, but this was rare because of low buyer concerns. [Citation needed] Sometimes a pass must be placed in the machine to prove one’s age before shopping. Has been prepared. In the United Kingdom, the law forbidding them came into force on 1 October 2011. [2] In Germany, Austria, Italy, the Czech Republic and Japan, cigarette machines are still common.

However, since 2007, age verification is mandatory in Germany and Italy – buyers must be 18 or older. Pubs and cafes, publicly accessible buildings, and various machines installed on the street accept one or more of the following: Buyer’s Identity Card, Bank Debit Card (Smart Card) or EU Driving License. In Japan, age verification is mandatory by the Taspo card from 1 July 2008, only issued to persons 20 years of age or older. The Taspo card uses RFID, stores monetary value and is non-contact.

4. Methodology

The present condition of water availability is scarce. So, it is important to use it in required amount only. The existing Water Vending Machine is an expensive machine that costs 2.5-3 lakhs. Also, Water Vending Machine Occupies a large space. In order to overcome the difficulties in the existing method and to provide the cost effective, efficient and user-friendly system for water vending machine, the following design is proposed.

Coin operated water dispenser works on the principle of detection and dispensing water. The four interfacing units (IR Sensor, LCD, Water Pump, Coin Sensor) are separately programmed in Arduino IDE. Program is executed in a sequence.

Moreover, this Water vending machine is contoured with the features like it can dispense water as per the requirements of the user; providing them with the various options like one can dispense warm, cold and moderate water as per their suitable needs. This portable water vending machine can also be deployed in any required area across the country.


Following with the working of the machine, there are various components being used like Sensors, coin acceptor, Display, Solenoid, Arduino, Relay drivers, Peltier etc. [8] and programmed using programming language like C. All of them with individual and interlinked functionality. The front end consists of modules listed as LCD display, Coin acceptor, water dispensing tap and IR sensors which are different from modules of back end. LCD display pop up with the option menu where users are required to select the menu and after the acceptance of the coin by coin acceptor further signals are transferred to the Back end of the machine.

In the backend Arduino is programmed using Arduino language that senses the signal from the frontend. The Relay drivers are set according to the requirement of water i.e., Relay 1 for hot water, relay 2 for cold water and relay 3 for normal water. On deriving the signals from Arduino, fetching of water from the primary Tank is executed and with the help of Peltier/Thermostatic cooling component temperature of water is set. The solenoid valve can be used to control the flow of water inside the system which is when set high=1 means ON and if low=1 means OFF. The solenoid valve acts as an intermediary between both the front and back end. However, this portable Water vending machine is well programmed to dispense water (hot, cold or moderate) from water dispensing tap up to 15 seconds only avoiding wastage of water or dispensing excess of water from the machine.

Apart from this Voltage Regulator 7805 is used to maintain a constant voltage level of 5V. This voltage regulator avoids fluctuations of voltage and protects the system from getting damaged.  


After the acceptance of the coin next message appears like “hold the glass”. Here the user has to keep the glass or any object (not transparent) in front of the sensor where the sensor detects the object and sends the signal to the Arduino. It passes the signal to the solenoid valve the valve gets open to discharge the water from primary tank if normal water or from Thermoelectric cooling if cold or hot water. After discharging the certain amount of water i.e,1500ml the machine automatically stops the water discharge.

5. Design and Modeling

Working Principle of Coin Based Water Dispenser System

This coin based water dispenser system works on the principle of coin detector when any one or customer will insert the silver coin in coin sensor, then first, this sensor will detector the coin means it will check, is it valid or not if it is not valid then it will not give the logic high signal to microcontroller. Similarly, if it is valid then it will give the logic high signal to microcontroller then microcontroller will turn on the water. When it will turn on then it will full up the glass. During filling the glass this system will continuously check the quantity of water or cola through IR sensor. When water pump will fill up the glass then IR sensor gives the logic signal to microcontroller then microcontroller will turn off the water pump. IR sensor also tells the presence of glass means it tells the microcontroller that turn on the water pump because glass is available here. Similarly, if glass is not available then it tells the microcontroller don’t turn on the water pump. In this whole system, microcontroller is the main intelligent controller of this system.

It is programmed in c language with help of mikro/c software and is interfaced with LCD display IR sensor, and coin sensor. LCD display, displays the whole process of this system and it also displays that your inserting coin is valid or not. This system is directly coupled with 230V ac supply, because it mostly consists of electronic components therefore these ac voltages are step down to 9 or 6 V ac with help of step down as transformer then these are converted into dc with the help of bridge rectifier. Then these are regulated to 5V dc with help of voltage regulator and LM 7805 voltage regulator have been used here for this purpose. Microcontroller, LCD display sensor and coin sensor are powered up with help of this voltage regulator. So, no need of any extra power supply or adapter to power on this system.

6. Hardware and Software


  1. Solenoid valve:
    A solenoid valve is an electromechanically worked valve. Solenoid valves contrast in the attributes of the electric flow they use, the quality of the attractive field they create, the component they use to manage the liquid, and the sort and qualities of liquid they control. The system changes from direct activity, unclogged type actuators to rotated armature actuators and rocker actuators. The valve can utilize a two-port structure to direct a stream or utilize a three or more port plan to switch streams between ports. Various solenoid valves can be set together on a complex.
  2. Thermoelectric Cooler:
    Thermoelectric coolers work by the Peltier impact (which additionally passes by the broader name thermoelectric impact). The gadget has different sides, and when a DC electric flow courses through the gadget, it carries heat from one side to the next, so one side gets cooler while different gets more smoking. The “hot” side is connected to a warmth sink with the goal that it stays at surrounding temperature, while the cool side goes underneath room temperature. In extraordinary applications, numerous coolers can be fell together for lower temperature, yet generally speaking productivity drops altogether.
  3. Ultrasonic Sensor:
    Ultrasonic sensors are a sort of acoustic sensor separated into three general classifications: transmitters, collectors and handsets. Transmitters convert electrical signs into ultrasound, recipients convert ultrasound into electrical signs, and handsets can both transmit and get ultrasound. Along these lines to radar and sonar, ultrasonic transducers are utilized in frameworks which assess focuses by deciphering the reflected signs. For instance, by estimating the time between imparting a sign and accepting a reverberation the separation of an article can be determined. Detached ultrasonic sensors are fundamentally amplifiers that identify ultrasonic clamor that is available under specific conditions.
  4. Coin Acceptor:
    The fundamental standard for coin discovery is to test the physical properties of the coin against known qualities of satisfactory coins. The coin acceptor examinations the coin dependent on its mass, size, measurement, thickness, metal organization as well as attraction, and afterward imparts a suitable electrical sign by means of its yield association. The following stage is by and large performed by the banknote-to-coins exchanger.
  5. Arduino Uno:
    Arduino Uno is an open-source microcontroller board reliant on the Microchip ATmega328P microcontroller. The board is outfitted with sets of automated and basic data/yield (I/O) sticks that may be interfaced to various advancement sheets (shields) and various circuits. The board has 14 advanced I/O pins (six proficient of PWM yield), 6 simple I/O sticks, and is programmable with the Arduino IDE (Coordinated Advancement Condition), by means of a kind B USB link. It very well may be fueled by the USB link or by an outside 9-volt battery, however it acknowledges voltages somewhere in the range of 7 and 20 volts.
  6. Relay Driver:
    A hand-off is an electrically worked switch. It comprises of a lot of info terminals for a solitary or different control signals, and a lot of working contact terminals. The switch may have any number of contacts in different contact structures, for instance, make contacts, break contacts, or mixes thereof.
  7. Temperature Sensor:
    A temperature sensor is a gadget, typically an RTD (obstruction temperature indicator) or a thermocouple, that gathers the information about temperature from a specific source and changes over the information into justifiable structure for a gadget or a spectator. Temperature sensors are utilized in numerous applications like HV and Air conditioning framework natural controls, nourishment preparing units, clinical gadgets, substance dealing with and car in the engine checking and controlling frameworks, and so forth.
  8. Voltage Regulator 7805:
    7805 is a three terminal direct voltage controller IC with a fixed yield voltage of 5V which is helpful in a wide scope of utilizations. As of now, the 7805 Voltage Controller IC is fabricated by Texas Instruments, ON Semiconductor, STMicroelectronics, Diodes fused, Infineon Advances, and so on.


The writing computer programs is done on Arduino with the assistance of Arduino coordinated improvement condition called as Arduino programming (IDE).

7. System Description

Probably this purposed system has been divided into 

  • Front-end 
  • Back-end
  • Front-end 

In this we have placed the module to provide the services to the customer. The Coin Discriminator, LCD Display, IR Sensor and Water dispensing tap within the front end of this machine. The customers are able to see the respective messages on LCD screen that indicates the operations, which is feasible for customer to regulate this “Water Vending Machine”. (Marcel Tresanchez et al., 2013) We have used HCSR 04 Ultrasonic sensor (IR sensor) to sense the thing like glass, cup, or bottle. When the coin is inserted in collector module/discriminator the coin image gets captured with the help of optical sensor camera. After that coin image is compared with existing coin images, if it got matched with the prevailing coin image then they are visiting to be continued. If the coin isn’t matched then the operation is aborted by this “Water Vending Machine”. The sensors during this coin acceptor use the thickness, diameter and the fall time of coins to spot them and it’s fully programmable so isn’t limited to particular sort of currency. [6]  To use the coin as an input to get the water dispensed we programmed this coin acceptor module with the help of buttons and Seven Segment display provided with the coin acceptor unit to select a particular coin or coin with the same shape, for that insert a bunch of coin samples or identical one, over and over about 20 times. After programming the coin shape in coin acceptor module, the coin acceptor will identify the programmed coin and reports every time when the coin is inserted and rejects the coin when it is not matched with the programmed coin. All this LCD, IR sensor, coin sensor, water pump is separately programmed in Arduino IDE.

  • Back-end

At the back-end of our machine the Arduino uno R3 controls the entire unit. Arduino could also be a little computer that you can simply program to process inputs and outputs visiting and from chip. That’s why Arduino is also called a physical or embedded computing platform, which suggest that it’s an interactive system, that through the employment of hardware and software can interact with its environment. Arduino uno can also be a microcontroller board supported the AT mega 328P (datasheet). Arduino board has 14 digital input /output pins, out of 14 pins 6 pins can also be used as PWM outputs and remaining 6 as analog inputs, also 16MHz resonator, a USB slot, an influence jack, an ICSP header and a button. On “Vin” pin of Arduino uno R3 of our unit the Solenoid valve is connected. A solenoid valve is an electrically activated valve, which is sometimes used to control the flow or direction of water in put “Water Vending Machine”. Solenoid valve is used to control the flow of water which is when energized the water will effuse and when de-energized the water will stopped. This solenoid valve comprises interface between the machine and water output valve which is programmed with the help Arduino microcontroller. When the customer selects the option of cold-water Thermoelectric coolers operate in step with the Peltier effect. The effect creates a temperature difference by transferring the heat between two electrical terminals. When this flows through the terminal of the two conductors, heat is removed at one terminal and cooling occurs. In between this the LCD screen will display the messages or instructions of ongoing process. [7] As any option is chosen from the customer in this machine the water is pulled from the main system into the water machine, because the water is cooled from main system it is required within the dispenser. As the water enters the machine from the main supply, it is fed through series of pipes and heated at particular temperature and water is dispensed. All this operation is done by relay (IC 7805 transformer). What relay does when any input is provided by the customer the relay opens the shaft accordingly and the water processed. Relay (IC7805 transformer) is of 5V that we used which restricts the 5V output for various ranges of input voltage. It acts as excellent component against input voltage fluctuations for circuit and adds an additional safety for the circuitry as well. Input voltage should always be greater than the output voltage (at least by 2.5)

8. Future Scope

With increasing competition and new technologies, we are proposing some possibilities which can be helpful for further expansion of our project. Following are some future scopes.

  1. Power supply using solar panel and wind turbine.
  2. Multiple coin calibration and adjustable quantity of water to be dispense.
  3. Capacity of hot cold and normal water tank a be adjusted according to need.
  4. Ph Value of water can be monitored and shown to the user

9. Conclusion

From above system we concluded that we can use water vending machine over the Arduino Uno board using partial 12 V components which gives us the acceptable results to execute the functionalities of the system which will also work efficiently for small scale applications.


  1. National Automated Business Association. “History of Vending and Coffee Services”. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  2. “Cigarette vending machines banned in England”. BBC. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  3. “Difference between candy machine and gumball machine”. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  4. Jeff, Eric (December 2006). “Old World, High Tech” (the world’s first vending machine, scroll down to read). Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  5. “Automatic Vending Machines”. High beam Business. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010.
  6. Sasikala G. ‘Real Time Embedded Based Drinking Water Vending Machine’ Asian Journal of Science and Technology Dec 2014.
  7. J. Yadav ‘Advanced Smart Water Vending Machine’ ResearchGate Mar 2017.
  8. “Design and Implementation of Automatic Vending Machine Based on the Short Massage Payment”,”Volume-7, Issue-2, March-April 2017″.

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