“Augmented Reality of Heart Anatomy with Unity3d”
issue 2

“Augmented Reality of Heart Anatomy with Unity3d”

Abhijeet Hirekhan

Department of CSE, Gurunanak institute of technology, Kalmeshwar, Nagpur University , India

Rahul Narad

Department of CSE, Gurunanak institute of technology, Kalmeshwar, Nagpur University , India

Ujwal Durbude

Department of CSE, Gurunanak institute of technology, Kalmeshwar, Nagpur University , India

Harshal Shende

Department of CSE, Gurunanak institute of technology, Kalmeshwar, Nagpur University , Indi

Guidance

Prof. Manjusha Talmale

HOD of CSE Department, Gurunanak institute of technology, Kalmeshwar, Nagpur University , India

Prof. Niranjan Chitare

Department of CSE, Gurunanak institute of technology, Nagpur University

Dr. S. Shelke

Principle

Department of CSE, Gurunanak institute of technology, Nagpur University

ABSTRACT-

This research aimed to develop the augmented reality   (AR) in teaching human heart anatomy and blood flow has been designed and developed an  AR to review the anatomy of the heart. The AR was evaluated by five experts, who analysed its content consistency by using the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC). The content was rated at 0.8. Simultaneously, via Diffusion of Innovation (DOI), the first moment decided to be 4.04  with the quality deviation of 0.35; indicating that the AR are often used for publicizing the innovation at a high  level. Subsequently, diffusion of the AR teaching tool was tested by sample group of 30  students. These subjects  were evaluated pre-test and post-test by the five experts  via the content validity index (CVI), with a score of 0.83. Furthermore, when the training results of the sample groups was evaluated after the training, it showed that the training result received higher ratings in comparison with the ratings prior to using AR tool.The before and after AR learning results were for statistical significance at p value < 0.001 with the use of a Test. Then, the effectiveness of the tool was evaluated by users that specialize in the acceptance of the AR for teaching the anatomy of the heart; the evaluation of which was based on the theory of Unified Theory Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) in which the results of the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation were 4.38 and 0.49, respectively. It showed that the users generally accepted the AR for teaching about the guts at a high level. Moreover, when there was a comparison of the training results of the thirty students who learned about the guts from using hardcopy media, pictures, and videos, and therefore the thirty students using the AR received better scores. The learning results of the two sample groups, tested by the statistical test called TTest, were statistical significant at p value <0.01 Hence, it might be concluded that, the AR for teaching heart function can promote simpler learning proficiency while being unanimously accepted by the users

I. INTRODUCTION

The use of modern learning tools in education assists instructors in improving their quality of teaching,  and thus improve the educational experience of the students. Modern technology helps in the production of multifunction and userfriendly media, which assists in developing the learners’ proficiency in all aspects (Kaufmann, 2013) The learners tend to understand the content via memorization of pictures and gain visual perception Biology, as one important knowledge to learn, being the science of living organisms and consisting of a wide range in content detailing molecular, cellular, and ecological factors. This leads the learners to have a negative attitude towards the subject. Moreover, the teachers might use the methods or media that cannot promote learning. There is a lot of knowledge content to learn, however the fundamentals of biology could be considered the most important in the human body, particularly with the heart and blood system, that is the center of this learning content. Humans are multicellular living organisms. They made of many tissues, organs and complex systems. The heart is one of many vital organs, supplying nutrients and oxygen by continuously circulating blood to other organs. Any abnormality within the heart can be fatal.

Heart disease is one of the main causes of death  among the Thai population with the  average  death rate of one per seven people, annually. Thus the guts , its structural characteristics, and its functions, should be studied. Generally, the visual presentation of living organism organs can help the learners in better understanding (Jiravarapong, 2010). Heart’s shape  and performance as an indoor organ is difficult for instance to students. Most textbooks and other resources presented in two dimensional images in which its characteristics or functions cannot be clearly seen (Tieranabunjong, 2001). Therefore, this potentially affects the proficiency of the  learners. Thus, an appropriate form of instructional media can be a good choice for effectively enhancing a student’s perception in learning about the heart and blood system. Computer software can be good instructional media to promote higher efficiency in learning by facilitating the data processing system and the presentation of information, pictures, sound, and messages effectively.

For example, virtual technology (Augmented Reality: AR) is one of the innovations that can be applied to the area of education to stimulate, support, and promote learning experiences (Volkan, Bradford & Ruzena, 2016) Lin et al. (2011). In this regard, Izzurracmanhas used virtualization technology applications in chemistry. The chemical bonds with 3D models which allowed students to find out the chemistry fast and  straight forward with the utilization of the graphic and imaginative content (Izzurrachman, 2012).

Ditcharoen et al. used virtualization technology to facilitate the learning of atomic structure and chemical bonding, improving the accuracy and speed of learning when compared with traditional  classroom lessons using twodimensional images (Ditcharoen, Polyiam, Vangkahad & Jarujamrus, (2014).

Kiourecidou et al has developed a web application which enhances the user’s medical knowledge with regard to the anatomy of the human heart by means of augmented  reality which helped increase understanding and experiential learning methods helps online education of anatomy courses (Kiourexidou, Natsis, Bamidis, Antonopoulos, Papathnasion, Sgantzos & Veglis, 2015). This paper presents the development the AR to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow, especially the functioning of the heart, with the use of Android operating system which is available on smartphones and tablets. It can assist the students and the interested people in  studying about the human body with visual aids and without limitations in location.

The tool can enable the students to gain more knowledge and understanding, and ultimately increase their interest in the subject. This study also aims to increase the learning potentiality for the  learners to catch up with  the digital era. In addition, it can reduce the longterm expenses and contribute to the learning society that stimulates, supports, and promotes  education through media. It  may also further expand the proficiency of the learners.

METHODOLOGY

The research methods for studying the development of the augmented reality to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow include the following steps:

ration of questionnaires and the pre-test and post-test.

The questionnaires for sample selection were evaluated by five experts who were specialized in the field of information technology and biology using the analysis of Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC to measure the appropriate sampling of the content validity of items in a questionnaire or at the item development stage.)

(Turner & Carlson, 2002) by which the experts to provide scores. If the criteria determined by the IOC value of each indicator was higher than 0.5 (the highest IOC value is 1), it means the questionnaires met the objective, possessed content suitable for educational purposes, and that the questionnaires worked effectively. The IOC value of each indicator was 0.8, indicating that the questionnaires met the objective in content consistency and is suitable for use in sample selection.

2.2 The research team had developed the pre-test and post-test to obtain learning results. The tests had passed the content validity index: CVI (CVI using ratings  of item relevance  by content experts. which an instrument has an appropriate of the content domain of items for the construct being measured and is an important procedure in content validity of development for questions.) (Polit & Beck, 2008) evaluated by the five experts from thesessment of CVI evaluated by all the experts, it was determined that the CVI value was 0.83 as there were ten questions out of twelve questions receiving the scores at 3 or 4. As the result was higher than 0.8 (the highest CVI value was 1), ten  questions had passed the CVI. Pre-test questions 1-5 are associated with human heart anatomy and question 6- 10 associated with blood flow. post-test questions had the same questions as the pre-test, but the order questions and the answers were changed. IOC value by using the formula as shown in the equation.is the sum of the scores that the experts ratedis the number of the experts

Tools AND Techniques FOR Implementation

Unity is a cross-platform game engine developed by Unity Technologies, first announced and released in June 2005 at Apple Inc.’s Worldwide Developers Conference as a Mac OS X-exclusive game engine. As of 2018, the engine had been extended to support quite twenty-five platforms. The engine are often wont to create three-dimensional, two- dimensional, computer game , and augmented reality games, also as simulations and other experiences. The engine has been adopted by industries outside video gaming, such as film, automotive, architecture, engineering and construction. The Unity game engine launched in   2005, targeted to ” representative” game development by making it accessible to more developers. The next year, Unity was named runner-up within the Best Use of Mac OS X Graphics category in Apple Inc.’s Apple Design Awards. Unity was initially released for Mac OS X, later adding support for Microsoft Windows and Web browsers.

Unity 2.0 launched in 2007 with approximately fifty new features. The release included an optimized terrain engine for detailed 3D environments, real-time dynamic shadows, directional lights and spotlights, video playback, and other features. The release also added features whereby developers could collaborate more easily. It included a Networking Layer for developers to make multiplayer games supported User Datagram Protocol, offering Network Address Translation, and State Synchronization and Remote Procedure Calls.

Apple launched there App Store in 2008, Unity quickly added support for the iPhone. For some years, the engine was uncontested on the iPhone and it became popular with iOS game developers.Unity 3.0 launched in September 2010 with features expanding  the  engine’s graphics features for desktop computers and computer consoles. additionally to Android support, Unity 3 featured integration of Illuminate Labs’ Beast Lightmap tool, deferred rendering, a built-in tree editor, native font rendering, automatic UV mapping, and audio filters, among other things. Unity gives users the power to make games and experiences in both 2D and 3D, and therefore the engine offers a primary scripting API in C#, for both the Unity editor within the sort of plugins, and games themselves, also as drag and drop functionality. Prior to  C# being the first programing language used for the engine, it previously supported Boo, which was removed with the discharge of Unity 5, and a version of JavaScript called UnityScript, which was deprecated in August 2017, after the discharge of Unity 2017.1, in favor of C#.

RELATED WORKS

Yeom (2011) states that the core problem of students is the visualization they learn in 2D through conventional media such as textbooks, visual aids and interactive CDs that is difficult to apply in practice field. Although interactive CDs are developed quite well, students still experience problem in price. Yeom states that AR technology may be a new research era, with its investigation and implementation are often developed with various methodologies 24. Patirupanusara (2012) states that there’s still much future development of AR to be applied to the medical field or learning 25. In 2012, Blum has developed an AR application for teaching anatomy 26. The system uses a depth camera to trace the pose of a user standing ahead of an outsized display. It’s also costly because it needs large dimension of TV screen. Blum concludes that his application gets positive feedback from children and attracts their attention. In 2015, Jamali has developed AR application prototype for learning human anatomy 27. The application can run only Android tablet platform, and can’t be executed in mobile phones or other platforms. Blum claims that students were satisfied with his application in terms of its usability and features. Kiourexidou in year of 2015 has also developed an AR prototype for learning human heart anatomy by using web platform 28. He evaluates the application in two different facets.

First, evaluates the feasibility of a 3D human heart module using one investigator under the supervision of an expert. Second, evaluates the usability issues by means of the cognitive walkthrough method. This prototype isn’t tested to user. Moro (2017) tests the effectiveness of VR and AR in health science and medical anatomy 29. He concludes that participants are more likely to exhibit adverse effects such as headaches, dizziness, or blurred vision. Unfortunately, his application is developed and run on tablet-platform only.Students without tablet can’t use the application. Silva (2017) also develops an AR application for segmenting and detailing visualization of anatomical structures based on AR for health education 30. they notes that the use of interactive visualization techniques such as AR and VR can collaborate with the process of knowledge discovery in medical and biomedical databases. He develops the application on mobile platform and can’t be accessed by other students who doesn’t have the OS platform.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The result of the data analysis of the sampling group, the sampling group who were used in this research was sixty persons. The profile of the survey respondents was established from the demographics section of the survey with the following general information shown in Table 5 and Table The Test Results of the augmented reality to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow. The pre-test and post- test results after training, using the augmented reality to teach human heart anatomy and blood flow revealed that the post- test results of the sample group after training was better than their pre-test results. The results were analysed by comparing the number of the students who could answer the questions correctly with their individual results. The learning results showed that the subjects had more correct answers after the training. The comparative test results collected before and after the training, showed that there was a statistically significant difference at the level of 0.05 according to the statistical test of the following hypothesis:

The hypothesis was assumed as followed:

H1: The learning result pre and post using of AR were different.

6.3 Statistically tested by T-Test, the main hypothesis (H0) was rejected because the significance value was lower than the significance level (α) which was previously determined. In this study in which α = 0.05, the H0 was rejected and the H1 was accepted. The efficiency of the developed model was different in their methods. From the table of the pair sample testing, the significance value was analysed to consider whether the mean values of the two groups were different. In fact, it was found that the significance value was lower than the predetermined significance value. Therefore, the mean values of the two groups were different. Considering the comparative differences of the learning results both before and after the use of the AR, it was found that the statistical significance p value < 0.001.

Subsequently, the learning results were assessed by comparing the scores between the post-test results of the thirty students (control group) who had learned about the human heart from the hardcopy media, pictures, and videos and the post-test results of the thirty students that had learned using the AR. The learning results of the sample group that used the AR were clearly better than the sample group that learned from the use of hardcopy media, pictures, and videos show in Figure 6. It was found that there were differences at the statistical significance level of 0.05 according to the statistical test of the following hypothesis.

The hypothesis was assumed that The learning results of the subjects who learned from hardcopy media, pictures, and videos and the subjects who learned via AR were not different.

H1: The learning results of the subjects who learned from hardcopy media, pictures, and videos and the subjects who learned via AR were different.

The evaluation results of the acceptance and the use of the augmented reality to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow. The results of the acceptance and the use of the augmented reality to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow were evaluated in four aspects which were: 1) the anticipation of the performance; its arithmetic mean was 4.50 and the standard deviation was 0.50which showed that the acceptance of the performance was rated at a high level; 2) the anticipation of the effort; the arithmetic mean was 4.37 and the standard deviation was 0.49. It showed the anticipation of the effort was rated at a high level; 3) the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation of the social influence were 4.28 and 0.45, respectively. It showed that the social influence was accepted at a high level. 4) The arithmetic means and the standard deviation of the condition of facilities for the application were 4.35 and 0.48, respectively. So, the acceptance of facilities in application was rated at a high level. The overall image of the evaluation effectiveness results on the acceptance of the users in regard to the AR had the arithmetic mean value of 4.38, and its standard deviation was 0.49. this revealed that the users accepted the augmented reality to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow at high level quicker to understand. It promoted the participation and the creation of imagination which was correspondent to the research work of Lin et al. (2011), Izzurrachman (2012), Ditcharoen et al. (2014). Kiourexidou et al. (2015). In the near future the augment reality and virtual technology will not be limited only to the creating of interest but also to be a part of the elaboration of knowledge, the survey exploration, and the collaborative learning which were also correspondent to the learning of this century

The evaluation results of the acceptance and the use of the augmented reality to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow

Conclusion And Future Scope

In In this research, the augmented reality (AR) to show the human heart anatomy and blood flow. It was evaluated by five experts who had the experiences in teaching and researching about the virtual biological technology using the content consistency analysis (Index of Item Objective Congruence: IOC). The IOC value of each content was 0.8. The results indicated that the constructed AR was consistent with the objective and correspondent with the anatomy of the heart. The results with the arithmetic mean valued at 4.04 and the standard deviation at 0.35. clearly showed that the AR was accepted for the dissemination at a high level.

Furthermore, the results of the study showed that the students who used the AR got better understanding than those who used other media for learning at the statistical significance of p value < 0.001. Comparing the learning results of sample group base on the post-test with control group (learned about the heart with hardcopy media, pictures, and videos) showed that the learning results of the sample group were better than the control group at the statistical significance of p value < 0.001. Correspondingly, there are four aspects of the effectiveness evaluation focusing on the acceptance of the AR as a tool to teach about the human heart measured by the theory of Unified Theory Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The overall image of the effectiveness assessment results on the acceptance of the users was rated at a high level as the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation were 4.38 and 0.49, respectively. To conclude, the development of the augmented reality to teach human heart could contribute to the effective learning process and better results in understanding. Finally, it could increase the proficiency of the learners.

The augmented reality to teach the human heart anatomy and blood flow: from the research result, it showed that the virtual technology helped in disseminating and promoting the learning which caused the learning to be easier and also quicker to understand. It promoted the participation and the creation of imagination which was correspondent to the research work of Lin et al. (2011), Izzurrachman (2012), Ditcharoen et al. (2014). Kiourexidou et al. (2015). In the near future the augment reality and virtual technology will not be limited only to the creating of interest but also to be a part of the elaboration of knowledge, the survey exploration, and the collaborative learning which were also correspondent to the learning of this century

References

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Ditcharoen, N., Polyiam, K., Vangkahad, P., & Jarujamrus, P. (2014). Development of Learning Media in Topics of Atomic Structure and Chemical Bond with Augmented Reality Technology. Journal of Research on Science Technology and Environment for Learning, 5(1).

Dreamstime. (2016). The pathway of blood flow through the heart. Retrieved from https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-image-pathway- blood-flow-heart-image.

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Sgantzos, M., & Veglis, A.(2015). Augmented Reality for the Study of Human Heart Anatomy. International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Engineering. 6(6), 658-663.Lin, H.C.K., Hsieh, M.C., Wang, C.H., Sie, Z.Y., & Chang, S.H. (2011). Establishment and usability evaluation of an interactive AR learning system on conservation of fish. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET), 10(4), 181-1 onchu, S. (2016). Heart Process, Retrieved from http://fat.surin.rmuti.ac.th/teacher/songchai/circulatory/ Circu latory%20index.htm. r, E. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.

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