Miss. Kishori Godbole
Student, Department of Business Management,
Jhulelal Institute of Technology.
Dr. Surekha Jichkar
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management,
Jhulelal Institute of Technology, Nagpur
This study seeks to present a review of relevant theoretical and empirical literature in relation to the research questions being analyzed, that is, (i) What are the extrinsic factors that influence the level of employee motivation in an organization? (ii) What are the intrinsic factors that influence the level of employee motivation in an organization? (iii) What is the impact of employee motivation on his/her performance in the organization?
Extrinsic Factors that Influence Employee Motivation
Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, refers to tangible rewards such as pay, fringe benefits, work environment, work conditions, and job security. Extrinsic motives cannot only be satisfied by the work itself. That means pleasure comes from something the task leads to, such as money. As according to (Kalimullah et al, 2010) the effects of work, as well as its contributing factors are also of importance for the need satisfaction. As a result, work is seen as a means to pursue other motives.
Monetary Compensation/ Salaries
No one works for free, nor should they. Employees want to earn reasonable salary/payment and employees desire their employers to feel that is what they are getting. Money is the fundamental inducement; no other incentive or motivational technique comes even close to it with respect to its influential value. It has the supremacy to magnetize, retain and motivate individuals towards higher performance. Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most fundamental factor in motivating the industrial workers to attain greater productivity (Abadi, etal., 2011).
Research has suggested that reward causes motivation of the employee which directly influences performance of the employee (Kalimullah, et al., 2010). Rewards are management tools that hopefully contribute to firm‟s effectiveness by influencing individual or group behavior. All businesses use pay, promotion, bonuses or other types of rewards to motivate and encourage high level performances of employees. To use salaries as a motivator effectively, managers must consider salary structures which should include the importance organization attach to each job, payment according to performance, personal or special allowances, fringe benefits, pensions etc (Rukhmani et al 2010).
Leadership is about influencing people to do things the right way. To achieve that you need people to follow and to have them trust you. And if you want them to trust you and do things for you and the organization, they need to be motivated. Theories imply that leader and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation. Motivation is purely and simply a leadership behavior. It stems from wanting to do what is right for people as well as for the organization. Leadership and motivation are active processes in management
Job enrichment is a job redesign technique that allows employees to have autonomy on how they perform their own tasks, giving them more responsibility. As an alternative to job specialization, companies/organizations using job enrichment may experience positive outcomes such as increased motivation, reduced turnover, increased productivity, and reduced absences. This may be because employees who have the authority and responsibility over their own work can be more efficient, eliminate unnecessary tasks, take shortcuts, and overall increase their own performance4 Information Availability and Communication Managers can stimulate motivation by giving relevant information and making it readily available to the employees. To this researcher it seems that there is no known organization in which people do not usually feel there should be improvement in the way departments communicate, cooperate, and collaborate with one another. Information availability brings to bear a powerful peer pressure, where two or more people running together will run faster than when running alone or running without awareness of the pace of the other runners. By sharing information, subordinates compete with one another hence lifting up each other’s self confidence (Chiang and Jang, 2008).
Employee level of motivation is also influenced by the quality of the working environment both its physical attributes and the degree to which it provides meaningful work. While a comfortable physical environment is correlated with employee motivation, the relationship is not merely as strong as the relationship between motivation and managerial behavior
INTRODUCTION TO TOPIC
An issue which usually generates a great of attention from most managers’ administrate d those involve in human resources management is the issue how to successfully motivate employee. While it is true that aspects like staff recruitment controlling, managing, leading and employee motivation is generally considered core elements in running a successful business.
In the organization setting the word “Motivation” is used to describe the drive that impels individual to work , A truly motivated person is one who “ wants” to work both employers and employees are interested in understanding motivation if employees know strengthen and what weaken their motivation .they can often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in the job. Employee want to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder. The concept of motivation implies that people choice the push of action they follow. When behavior scientist the word motivation, they think of its something steaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in Latin word “mover” thus the word motivation stands for movement .if a manager truly understand his subordinates motivation, he can channel their “inner state” towards command goals, i.e., goals shared by both individual and the organization. It is a well known fact that human beings have great potential but they do not use it fully when motivation is absent. Motivation factor are those which make people give more than a fair day’s work and that is usually only about sixty –five percent of a person’s capacity. Obviously, every manager should be releasing hundred percent of an individual’s to maximize performance for achieving organization goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop his potential and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability. At work one time, employees were considering just another input into the production of goods and services. what perhaps changed their way of thinking about employees was research , referred to as the Hawthorne studies ,conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 this study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employees behavior is linked to their attitudes.
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION.
Probably, no concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians, Researchers and practicing manager’s motivation. The increased attention towards Motivation is justified by several reasons
- Motivated employees are always looking the for better ways to do a job .This Statement can apply to corporate strategists and to production workers. It is the responsibility of manager to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs.
- A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. This is true whether we are taking about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and analysis for a report or a clerk taking extra care when filling important document.
- Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker. The high productivity of Japanese worker and the fever worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an automobile in Japan than elsewhere is well known. An appreciation of the nature of motivation is highly useful manager.
- Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical resources for it to function. there behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to organization (i) people must be attracted not only to join the organizations but also to remain it (ii) people must perform he tasks for which they are hired and must do so in dependable manner and (iii) people must go beyond this dependable role per performance and engage in some form of creative, spontaneous, and innovative behavior at work.
- Motivation as a concept represents, a highly complex phenomenon that affects‟. And is affected by a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu .an understanding of the topic of motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend more fully the effects of variations in other reaction as they relate to the performance, satisfaction, and so forth.
Factors enhancing employee motivation.
Employees want to earn reasonable salaries, as money represents the most important incentive, when speaking of its influential value (Sara et al, 2004). Financial rewards have the capacity to maintain and motivate individuals towards higher performance, especially workers from production companies, as individual may use the money to satisfy their needs. Therefore, pay has a significant impact in establishing employees‟ diligence and commitment, being a key motivator for employees. Nevertheless, studies have shown that pay does not boost productivity on the long term and money does not improve performance significantly (Whitley, 2002). Moreover, focusing only on this aspect might deteriorate employees‟ attitude, as they might pursue only financial gains. Fortunately, there are other non-financial factors that have a positive influence on motivation, such as rewards, social recognition and performance feedbacks. Numerous researches have also pointed out that rewards lead to job satisfaction, which in turn influence directive and positively the performance of the employees. Moreover, rewards are one of the most efficient tools of management when trying to influence individual or group behavior, as to improve organization’s effectiveness. The vast majority of companies use pay, promotion, bonuses and other types of rewards to motivate employees and to increase their performance. In order to use salary as a motivator, managers have to develop salary structures, according to the importance of each job, individual performance and special allowances. Employees can also be motivated through proper leadership, as leadership is all about getting thing done the right way. In order to achieve these goals, the leader should gain the employees‟ trust and make them follow him. Nevertheless, in order to make them trust him and complete their tasks properly for the organization, the employees should be motivated (Baldoni, 2005). The leaders and the employees help one another to attain high levels of morality and motivation. Trust represents the perception of one individual about others and his willingness to act based on a speech or to comply with a decision. Therefore, trust is an important factor for an organization that wants to be successful, as it has the ability to enhance employees‟ motivation and foster interpersonal communication. Irrespective of the degree of technical automation, attaining high levels of productivity is influenced by the level of motivation and effectiveness of the staff. Therefore, developing and implementing employee training programs is a necessary strategy to motivate workers. In addition, a good communication between the managers and the workforce can instigate motivation, as the degree of ambiguity decreases.
Empowerment and organizational performance.
Empowerment and organizational performance Empowerment is defined according to Bennis (1989) as an approach to leadership that empowers subordinates as a main constituent of managerial and organizational effectiveness. Moreover, employees are given authority and the freedom to make decisions, which encourages them to discover and use their full potential. Having more control over their own jobs is the main driving force of empowerment that encourages growth and better productivity. Therefore, the empowerment process focuses on solving the problems of the organizations by people. Furthermore, empowering makes workforce fell appreciated and that their feedback on performance is valuable for the organization. The contribution of the employees and their participation in designing the organization are essential for the well-being of the organization, as individuals should do efforts in the environment where they are responsible for their actions. Empowerment gives people responsibility and authority to act as if they are in control of their own destinies. It is essential for an organization to recognize the quality and the results of the employees work, as next time they will be even more efficient to get more recognition. Employee participation and empowerment is about the contributions of the employees in administration and decision- making regarding the policies, objectives and the strategies of the organization. Studies have shown that employees‟ perception of the goals and the norms of the organization are positively related to employee motivation. Taking into account that high levels of motivation can be achieved through empowerment, this process also leads to organizational growth. Customer satisfaction can also be achieved through empowerment, as employees can make quick decisions to solve the problems without having to ask the manager what to do. Moreover, increased autonomy increases the productivity and enhances their capabilities and motivation to accept new challenges and solve them. Proper remuneration and empowerment combined are imperative if an organization wants to obtain greater dedication and trust from its members. If the employees are loyal to the organization and highly motivated, superior levels of effectiveness and growth can be achieved by the organization. Employee involvement and empowerment are two aspects that should not be overlooked as it increases commitment and understanding. Therefore, employees will be less likely to be resistant to changes and not only feel valued by the organization, but also come up with important information, as they are in direct contact with the customers or with the operational processes. On the one hand, autocratic leadership and top-down decision-making create a rigid work environment where employees are given orders to achieve certain tasks. In these organizations, innovation is suppressed and motivation decreases, which has in turn a negative impact on performance. On the other hand, satisfied and motivated employees will contribute to enhanced organizational productivity, which leads to better profits.
The purpose of this study was to design the importance of certain factors in motivating employee’s factors.
- Job security.
- Sympathetic help with personal problems.
- Personal loyalty.
- Interesting work.
- Good working conditions.
- Tactful discipline.
- Good wages.
- Promotion and growth in the organization.
- Feeling of being in on thing.
- Full appreciated of work done.
A Secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this study with the study results from other population.
The objectives of the study were:
- To study factors responsible for employee motivation.
- To study impact of employee motivation on work efficiency.
- To study the relation between motivation and financial gain for employees.
- To analysis the impact of motivation and employee development
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
- The study is intended to evaluate motivation of employee’s organization in the organization.
- A good motivational program procedure is essential to achieve goal of the organization, If efficient motivational programmers of employees are made not only in this particular organization but also any other organization.
Employee motivation is correlated to organization culture.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Random SAMPLE: 50
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Random
Research is a systematic and scientific search for pertinent information on a specific topic in fact research is an art of scientific investigation. It is an academic activities and the term should be use in technical sense. Research is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge helping for its advancement it is the pursuit of a truth with the help of study observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution through a problem is calledresearch.
A Study designed to depict the participation in an a accurate way more simply put descriptive research all above describing people who take port in the study.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION TOOL:
INTERVIEW: Primary data may be collected either through personal interview or through telephonic interview.
SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION
Official record of Mahindra and Mahindra ltd. Books and internet.
DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
Data interpretation and analysis techniques to be used:
Coefficient and determination will be used for data interpretation analysis.
Above table shows 82 %( n=41) respondent belongs to male group of 18% (n=9)
From the above graph shows that 32% of respondent that they have on job security in that organization of respondent feels that the organization to by providing the good career opportunity from then 28% of respondent feels that they have an availability of welfare facilities in that organization 12% respondent feels that they have an good promotion opportunity will be provided by the organization from them.
Most respondent 82% were belongs to group of male.
Job security is the highest most factors than any other Rated approach that which motives employees.
Award and reward are highly needed of the study.
Motivation is an important concept that has been receiving considerable attention from academicians researchers and practicing HR mangers in its essence motivation comprises important element such as the need comparison of rewards choice of strategies , goal directed behavior, social comparison of rewards reinforcement, and performance satisfaction.
The increasing attention paid rewards motivation is justified because of several reason motivated employees come out with new ways of doing jobs. They are quality oriented .they are productive any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully.
- C.B.Mamoria and S.V.Gankar., „Human resourcesManagement (Text &Problems)‟, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, ThirdEdition.
- Jacfitz-enz, „Howto measure HRM(Theory)‟, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, SeventhEdition.