“A Study of Causes And Impact of Employee Absenteeism”
issue 3

“A Study of Causes And Impact of Employee Absenteeism”

1 Akansha Warde,  2 Dr. Swati Rahate

  1. Student, Department of Business Management, Jhulelal Institute of Technology.
  2. Associate Professor, Department of Business Management, Jhulelal Institute of Technology.


The article report entitles A Study of Employee Absenteeism Is intended to determine the workers condition, salary, facilities, attendance program, training programme, motivation techniques and promotions. The article consists of objectives, limitations, company profile, research methodology, findings, suggestions, and conclusions. The information needed for the research has been gathered from primary and secondary data.  The response given by the workers of the company is analyzed and interpreted using different types of statistical tools which are percentage analysis method. This article throws light to increase the productivity and increase growth of an organization. The sample size of the article is 482 from the population. The questionnaire method as survey is used as a tool for collecting the primary data. The questionnaire has been designed by the researcher according to the objective of the study.

Key words: Employee Absenteeism, Reasons, Measures for Control Absenteeism


Absenteeism is defined as the failure of the worker to report for work when he is ‘scheduled to work. A worker is expected to work when the employer has work available for him and the worker is aware of it. Authorized absence is also treated as absence while presence even for a part of the shift is treated as presence for the whole shift. Absence on account of strikes, lockout, layoff, weekly rests or suspension is not taken into account. Thus, it relates to only voluntary absence due to personal reasons of the individual concerned. Absenteeism rates given in the report represent percentage of man days lost due to absence to the corresponding total man days scheduled to work. The man days scheduled to work is arrived at by adding the man day’s .actually worked and the man days lost on account of absence of the workers due to some reason or the other.

A worker who reports for any part of a shift is to be considered as present. An employee is considered scheduled to work when the employer has work for him there is no reason to expect well in advance that the employee will not be available for work at the specific time. An employee on regularly scheduled vacation is, therefore, not to be considered as employer-ordered lay-off. On the other hand an employee who requests time-off at other than a regular vacation period should be considered as absent from scheduled work until he returns, or until it is determined that the absence will be such duration that his name is removed from the list of active employees. After this date he should be considered as neither scheduled to work nor absent. Similarly, an employee who quits without notice should be considered as absent from scheduled work until his name is dropped from the active list, but preferably this period should not exceed one week in either case. If a strike is in progress, workers on strike should be considered as neither scheduled to work nor absent, since data on time is lost because strikes are collected under the head of man days lost on account of industrial dispute.


The phenomenon of absenteeism has been explained in various ways. The atmosphere prevailing in a plant, therefore, affects His attitude to his work, and either persuades him to attend regularly or keeps him away. Irritating uncertainty, irregularity, and confusion in the factory are likely to be important cause of absenteeism. The attitude and practice of the management also contribute to absenteeism.


  • Maladjustment with factory conditions
  • Social religious ceremonies 
  • Unsatisfactory housing conditions 
  • Industrial fatigue 
  • Unhealthy working conditions 
  • Absence of adequate welfare facilities 
  • Alcoholism
  • Indebtedness
  • Improper and unrealistic personnel policies.


  • Adoption of a well defined recruitment procedure 
  • Cordial relationship between supervisors and workers 
  • Provision of reasonable wages and allowances and job security for workers
  • Motivation of workers and social measures
  • Improved communication and prompt redressal of grievances
  • Liberal grant of leave
  • Safety and accident prevention
  • Provision of healthy and hygienic working conditions 
  • Development of workers education


Absenteeism has become a major problem in almost all the industrial sectors. Excessive absenteeism constitutes a considerable cost to the industry even when the absent employee receives no pay. Because of disorganization of work, work schedules are upset and delayed, resulting in the management failure to meet delivery dates. When sick pay is authorized, the cost of absenteeism mounds up more rapidly. It is, therefore, desirable that measures are effectively implemented to minimize the cost of absenteeism as for as possible. In the light of various factors promoting excessive rate of absenteeism in the units concerned, measures will have to be taken by the management. Generally speaking, proper conditions of work in the factory, adequate wages leave for rest and recuperation constitute the most effective means of minimizing cost of absenteeism. Provision of suitable housing facilities in industrial towns would also go a long way in improving attendance. Unless working and living conditions are improved and necessary commitment of labour force in the place of work is promoted and stabilized, the problem of absenteeism cannot be effectively solved. 


  • To study the absenteeism level in each shift.
  • To find out the employees job satisfaction level in their work.
  • To find out the factors affecting the absenteeism.
  • To find out the various reasons for the absences of workers    from work.
  • To provide better work environment for the employees.


An absent employee means idle machines or unoccupied work space, with the consequent direct loss and an indirect reduction in the tempo of production. Productive efficiency of a plant is adversely affected by absenteeism which causes disorganization in work. Hence the scope of the study throws light on various reasons of absenteeism among the employees. Only the employees’ perception falls under the area of the study. This study will serve as a base for further study on labour absenteeism.


    The present study requires the use of both primary data and secondary data. Primary data were collected using a structural questionnaire framed by the Present researcher with his guide. Secondary data needed for the study were collected through desk research.
    The primary data that is collected by a researcher from first hand source using questionnaire survey
    The secondary data is collected from books magazines, News-papers, journals, earlier related studies.
    The main tool used for analysis of data is percentage method. 


1. Table showing the information regarding the age of employees



From the above table, it is clear that 23.65% of the employees are belongs to age group of 24 to 29, 5.81% employees are belongs to 18 to 23, 53.53% employees are 30 to 35, 17.01% employees belongs to above 35 years. 

2. Table showing the information regarding the sex of the employees


Gender of the employees


In the above table, it is clear that 86.93% of the employees are belongs to Male, 13.07% employees are belongs to Female.

3. Table showing the information regarding category wise divide workers


The workers


From the above table, it is clear that 3.98% of the employees are belongs to Executive, 32.37% employees are belongs to Non-Executive, 51.45% employees are Underground, 12.24% employees are belongs to Opencast.  

4. Table showing the information regarding experience of the employees


Experience of employees


  • It is found that 5.53% respondent of the age group of 30-35.
  • The researcher reveals 86.93% of the respondents are male, and 13.07% of the respondents are female regarding sex.
  • It is found that  59.13% of respondents are 10-16 years working experience
  • Regarding satisfied with present job 12.83% of the respondents are Satisfied, 35.63% respondents are Satisfied/Dissatisfied, 6.53% respondents are Highly satisfied and 3.94% respondents are Dissatisfied.
  • It is found that 62.24% of the respondents have said that their work atmosphere is Interesting.
  • It is found that the 11.83% of the employees have said that more salary reduces the absenteeism.
  • It from the analysis it is found that 25.93% of the respondents are Sickness, 20.75% respondents are Personal problem, 9.34% respondents are work place stress, and 3.53% respondents are Unwillingness to work and 40.46% of responds to hard work regarding reasons for taking leave.
  • The study reveals that 99.59% of the respondents are Agree, 0.41% respondents are Disagree, regarding production will be affected due to the absenteeism.
  • It is clearly evident that majority of the employees are agree towards awareness program on attendance bonus is necessary to solve absenteeism problem.
  • From the study it is very clear that there exits a strong relationship between the shifts and absenteeism. It is also very clear that the absenteeism rate is high during the night shifts.
  • Regarding Extreme punishment, due to unauthorized absenteeism 7.05% of the respondents are Issuing memo, 37.34% respondents are Oral warning, 53.53% respondents are need to exact reason for leave and 2.07% respondents are Decide do dismissal.
  • Regarding employees opinion about satisfied with the management giving an opportunity to express grievances 41.49% of the respondents are Satisfied, 24.90% respondents are Highly satisfied, 35.63% respondents are Dissatisfied, % respondents are3.94% No opinion. employee are belongs to Nature of job, 1.04% employees are belongs to Less salary.
  • Most of the respondents (97.51% employees) feel that proper counseling to chronic absentees will help in reducing the absenteeism rate.


The following suggestions are made to  motivate the employees as well as boost  the moral conditions of the employees for enhancing the work culture and better environments in order to minimize the absents & induce excellent working results.

  • The company may consider creating recreation club within the premises with indoor game facilities, which may be used by the employees during the leisure time / lunch hours in order to freshening their mindset.
  • The company may consider arranging for picnic / sports events for the benefits of the employees as well as the families / children of the employees in a reasonable interval.
  • Consider awarding or rewarding the best workers in an annual basis.
  • Consider cash award or benefits for the employees who are punctual in their timings and the non-absentees, which may give a positive demonstrative effects among all the employees and specifically those who are irregular.
  • Consider providing company transport facility (i.e., pick & drop) from selective locations. In case, it is not feasible, a tie-up arrangement may be made with the state transport corporation or otherwise.
  • The existing canteen facilities needed to be upgraded or improved. A canteen committee comprising members from the employees’ side as well as from the management side may be set up and the meetings of the committee may be arranged in a frequent interval, say at least in a month, in order to obtain the valid and necessary suggestions for better improvement.
  • A grievance cell   may be created in order to providing a platform for the employees to air their work related grievances in order to get their problems heard & solved in time.
  • A better cordial relationship between the employees and the management may be developed in order to have a conductive working environment.
  • In many a cases, it is found that the employees avail leave mostly under the ground the sickness & personal reasons. A need is felt, at this juncture that, an indoor dispensary facility with a visiting doctor arrangements may be considered in order to immediately attend to any untoward accidents or injuries to the employees on work & similarly any illness of the employees instantly.
  • Similarly, regarding the above, the regular absentees may be reviewed by senior level executives of the institution and the reasons may be found for necessary remedial actions.  Counseling may be arranged for willful irregular employees and suitable convincing advice / opportunity may be given to rectify their attitude.   
  • Consider celebrating annual day of the company and on such days rewarding the best workers, etc may be welcoming factors.
  • The system of extending ‘performance based’ incentives or bonus to the employees may be introduced.


  • Absenteeism is a total man shift lost because of absence as a percentage of total number of man. Shift schedule to work. It is calculated using various notes Absenteeism such as also rate, frequency rate and severity rate. Absenteeism also affected the organizational from multiple angles for which various measures are taken for controlling and minimizing absenteeism.
  • The situation in the carrier development of both the individuals and the organization result in the employee turnover.
  • The rate of change in the employee of an organization during a define period is external mobility.  It is also known as external carrier.  Thus it is the shifting of the employees into and auto of the organization.


  1. Human Resource Management – C.B Gupta
  2. Research Methodology – C.R. Kothari
  3. http://www.findarticles.com
  4. Israelstam Ivan. “Absenteeism” In Labour Law for Managers, Johannesburg: Fleet Street Publications Pty Ltd, 2004: A01/ 001 – 017.
  5. Levine, G. Absenteeism – causes and cures.


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