Web Based Geographic Information System Development for Land Surface Temperature Analysis Using Python Framework
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Web Based Geographic Information System Development for Land Surface Temperature Analysis Using Python Framework

Shweta Balkrishna Ramteke1, Ms. Archana Raut2, Mr. P Girish Kumar3

(PG Scholar1, Assistant Profressor2, Scientist Engineer3)

1,2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, 3Regional Remote Sensing Centre, RRSC, ISRO

Email id: ramteke_shweta.ghrcemtechcse@raisoni.net


The purpose of this document is to give a primary understanding of web-based GIS and also to provide appropriate strategies when implementing the web-based GIS. Until now, the temperature change is a truth to compensate the performance and several responsible reasons threaten our environment. Therefore, we can say that things will be very easy if we learn in advance the future temperature analyzes. Since there are many techniques available to analyze potential temperature change threats, integrated aero physical models in GIS circumstances have been widely accepted these days. Our goal is to provide such a system so that other people are also aware of future weather temperatures in advance.

Keywords: Web GIS, Python, Flask, Django, Leaflet, Map, PostgreSQL, Client, Server.


A. Web GIS:

Web based GIS is a kind of a distributive system, consisting of two important parts, namely, a GIS server & client, where client can be web browser, desktop app, or kind of mobile application type. There is another term that counts, just like online GIS. The term is Internet GIS. Although web-based GIS and Internet GIS are not the same, in some cases they may be used interchangeably because they have slight variations among them (8). In addition, the Internet gives most of the services and one of them is the Web. Geographic info system web sometimes known as Geospatial Web. Topographical datasets are to be collected with distinct remotesensing sources, in particular non-digital & digital maps; Additionally, database component is utilized to keep the geospatial datasets in well-organized manner & let them do to perform territorial operations (8).

B. Overview of paper

Across nation, distinct GISs, including national geographic platform ISRO, provide their users platforms to view & download openly access datasets.  By supporting functionality of platform provided by web geographic information system for accessing various services, a large number of online data sets have been made available for easy access by an open approach for registering, discovery and union. E.g., ISRO website, which gives global surveillance datasets for researchers and clients across Internet geographic info system. Web. GIS datasets are developed with fully developed web GIS technologies. The growing demand for distribution of geospatial that transform very popular web platforms that implement web and geological resources for decision support. 

Web GIS puts GIS in the hands of clients or people. The geographic web application designed for analyzing Earth’s temperature essentially made up with analyzed based forecasts and critical points. The confinement of the Earth’s surface temperatures from the records of the previous year allows predicting future conditions. In this paper, the geographic web application designed to analyze Earth’s temperature in such a way that we acquired data from the previous year on Earth’s surface temperatures in the form of maps from the data. NASA Earthling. Therefore, these data were used for future forecasts. This project was created by involving new and old ideas to solve the problems created by overheating of the soil surface temperature that may create problems in the future. So, anticipate future conditions ahead of time. Provides basic functionality that maintains comfort.

C.  Web GIS Architecture:

The web-based GIS architecture is a systematic client / server architecture on three similar levels. A client is simply a web browser, and the server can be a web server, & database (3). Contains the server that must be running, plus the client-side client interface and server-side middleware carrying the web application. The growth of web-based GIS has been well stabilized, progressive towards the improvement of the Internet and the expansion of hardware & software. Non-developer customers remained only end users. Web gives these users with ability to obtain better interactivity using the data source and also making better decisions based on the data.

Figure 1 Web-GIS Architecture

This type of creation was done because the GIS map server must be located on top of the web server. While almost all other web applications may not need enough technology to function properly.

D. The Technologies employed in GIS web application:

  1. Flask:  Flask is a type of Python-based web micro-framework.  
  2. Python: Python is considered a scripting language included in number of GIS applications.
  3. PostgreSQL: PostgreSQL, also named as Postgres, is a database management system.


The aim is to give brief understanding creation of geographic web application to analyze the Land’s surface temperature using various free & open source programs. The web-based GISs includes following as zoom, pan, info window, home, measurement, geolocation, legend button, search bar, level selection, mouse position, mini map, assignment, etc.

For creating a web-based geographic application, more effort should made for creating geological user interface. It focuses more on the results of the process. Additionally, this document provides an effective solution for creating a geographic web application to analyze the Land’s surface temperature.


  1. Aparna Kulkarni (March 2016)
    According to this document, purpose of the research was to recognize the real capacity of the functional types of the implant and its changes.
  2. Dr Alberto Cardoso and Dr Dress (September 2016)
    In this paper, this project intends showing importance of web-based GIS applied over smart campus & facilities issues
  3. Dr. Sridhar Vadlapudi (January 2009),
    According to this, the object of the study is to integrate atmospheric data into the geographic information system which provides a well-developed atmospheric processing system.
  4. O. Ozdilek, D. Z. Seeker (2005)
    In this, create a weather processing system that combines weather dataset into distinct formats, into real-time web geographic information system.
  5. Fanon Ananda, Prof. David Kuria (July 2016).
    This document gives detailed info on the number of job steps. It also shows a usable framework processes that conduct the process.
  6. Fang Miao and Qi Yuan (28 Dec 2013).
    It gives idea over procedure for developing a web-based system, called the information system for monitoring and warning purposes.
  7. Janhabi Meher, NIT Rourkela, , Thesis, (July-2014).
    In this, provide brief idea on the trouble of drought, flood, etc. Subsequently, the application of the expected model is carried out so that to predict monthly performance and its performance evaluation using different error statistics and correlation coefficients.
  8. Jacob J. Gross, Tomoaki Miura, Jonathan Deenik, John Yanagida, Thesis, (2014).
    This study looks over perfect statistics on the ecological environment as well as zonal forecasts so that to estimate the expected effects of changes in production of food.
  9. Akarsh. A, Dr. N. R. Patel Thesis, (August 2013).
    It shows the feasible effect of changes in productivity of food and the separation of organic carbon from the soil using the fused climate model based on GEPIC.
  10. Yumei Hu, University of Gothenburg Sweden, Thesis, (2010)
    This study focuses more on extracting a monthly dataset from the precipitation grid from station observations in Sweden during 1961-2004, using topographic information.

This document gives more values on drawing out datasets from a periodic rain grid from monitoring of stations at Sweden using topographic datasets.


Web based GIS is very well-known mechanism that gives dataset & also distinct mapping assistance by making use of system networks namely Internet services. The critical implementation problem arises if there exist many users. Also, the difficulty arises that is people have much less time, attention and accuracy, which means that people does not have perfect in collecting data on real-world things. If we had such a system capable of knowing everything by ourselves, it would be easy for us to find and trust everything, reducing waste, loss and costs.

 The traditional card has been utilized for many years, but it cannot get change or update. Web based GIS maps can be updated or changed at any time. Examining the Earth’s temperature by making use of geographic web maps are very effective practice and helps in getting aware from future risks.


The area for analyzing of the Land surface temperature is taken from the MODIS data of the Earth’s surface temperature.

This LST dataset has been made obtainable by NASA. There are 16 SDSs in the MOD11C1 product, alike to that in the MOD11B1 data product, excludes for the alteration of LST_Day_6km in LST_Day_CMG and LST_Night_6km in LST_Night_CMG and without LST_Day_6km_Aggregated_fr1kmfr6km

There are 17SDS in the product MOD11C2. For every integer specify a clear sky (1) or less (0) on the corresponding day or night. Bit 00 corresponds to the first day or night and bit 07 corresponds to the last day or night of the 8-day period.


A. V S Code:

The V S Code software is very easy to use compared to others. It has been extensively utilized by most of the clients and the developers. It is fusion over source code editing & strong growing tools, including debug. Debug has very important & it’s an important section of any editor. With number of languages ​​supported, VS offers an immediately rich system with various functions, such as syntax highlighting, parenthesis matching, automatic indentation, image selection, snippets, etc.

  • The vs involves debugging that supports Node.js runtime & debug js, ts, or any other language.
  • Installation of “vs code”
  •  vs code is free software. For downloading and installing it on our system, we must follow:
  • downloading vs code from the following link: (https://code.visualstudio.com/download)
  • V S code (Install and create a shortcut on the desktop)

B. Flask Framework:

Flask is a type of Python-based web micro-framework. It doesn’t contain a database abstraction layer, module validation, or other elements, whereas the existent 3rd party libraries give usual functions. Flask is a web-based framework. The web framework gives you permission for developing web apps, Flask is consisting the WSGI library and also on Jinja2, that is nothing more than its model engines.

Basic syntax:

From flask import flask

app = Flask(_name_)

@app. route (‘/’)

def ab ():

return ‘ab’

 if _name_== ‘_main__’:

app.run (debug=True)

D. Database: PostgreSQL is database management system has been used for GIS web application. It has very portable system which can be run on many platforms like Mac OS X, Solaris and Windows.

Figure 2 A flowchart of geospatial database operations

a. Dataset Used – MODIS LST data:

Datasets from GIS web application for analyzing the Earth’s surface temperature comes from the Earth’s surface temperature data.

MODIS LST data files consist of data maps and tables with distinct dates. In the single HDF file, there are 9 SDS. These are: LST, QC, Error_LST, Emis_31, Emis_32, viewing angle, display time, latitude and longitude. This LST dataset has been made obtainable by NASA. There are 16 SDSs in the MOD11C1 product, alike to that in the MOD11B1 data product, excludes for the alteration of LST_Day_6km in LST_Day_CMG and LST_Night_6km in LST_Night_CMG and without LST_Day_6km_Aggregated_fr1kmfr6km

There are 17SDS in the product MOD11C2. For every integer specify a clear sky (1) or less (0) on the corresponding day or night. Bit 00 corresponds to the first day or night and bit 07 corresponds to the last day or night of the 8-day period.

E. Leaflet map:

There are most of the location dependent web apps that are constantly growing. A web-based GIS created by means of a sequence of open source collections that make approachability of spatial data simple and easy for a large number of customers.

Figure 3 Leaflet map

Web-based GIS can be expanded using Leaflet. Where, JavaScript library has been applied to display the maps.

For including Leaflet in the application, follow the steps:

Include Leaflet CSS file in the head section:

  • <link rel=”stylesheet” href=”https://unpkg.com/leaflet@1.6.0/dist/leaflet.css”/>

Include Leaflet JavaScript file after Leaflet’s CSS file:

  • <script src=”https://unpkg.com/leaflet@1.6.0/dist/leaflet.js”></script>

Putting a div element with id and set the coordinates:

  • <div id=”mapid”></div>
  • var mymap = L.map(‘mapid’). setView ([51.505, -0.09], 13);

Codeadding tile layer:

  • L.tileLayer(‘https://api.mapbox.com/styles/v1/{id}/tiles/{z}/{x}/{y}?access_token={accessToken}’, {
    attribution: 'Map data &copy; <a href="https://www.openstreetmap.org/">OpenStreetMap</a> contributors, <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/">CC-BY-SA</a>, Imagery © <a href="https://www.mapbox.com/">Mapbox</a>',
    maxZoom: 18,
    id: 'mapbox/streets-v11',
    tileSize: 512,
    zoomOffset: -1,
    accessToken: 'your.mapbox.access.token'
}). addTo(mymap);

F. Flow Diagram:

Figure 4 Implementation flow diagram

G. Application Development:

Download the visual studio. Also download Anaconda software. After this install Flask using command prompt.

Figure 5 conda  Installation  
Figure 6 Flask configure process

After installing Flask, install and create virtual environment for flask as follows:

Install virtual environment

Command – pip install virtualenv

 Create project using following commands:

mkdir newproj

cd newproj

virtualenv flaskenv

Now activate virtual environment using following command:

Command – flaskenv\scripts\activate

Figure 7 Project creation in Anaconda prompt

Download Land Surface Temperature (LST) data for Modis LST products now. Modis LST products available on the Nasa Earthdata website. The details of Modis LST products have already been described above. Save the data cards in HDF format.

The following figure shows NASA Earth data available on the NASA website.

Figure 8 HDF format data download 
 Figure 9 HDF format image map

   HDF format data product needs to get convert into TIFF format. For doing this, medium is required to convert HDF format data into TIFF format. So, for this we have used HDFView software. HDFView software is used to convert HDF format into other file formats.


There are two main files used for calculation and helps in getting result of calculations.

One of the is Module3_DB_Creation.py. This file let us pick the original images from saved images as saved in folders in date wise manner. There are 17 images in single file of particular date such that you have to choose 2 or more different images from 2 or more different files of different dates.

After selecting the two or more images like “Clear_sky_days”, it proceeds by running and after processing both the images it evaluates the areas where heat signatures have increased or reduced.

After that stores the difference image at the output. This also reads the values of RGB for each of the images.And also finds the reflection of pixels.It finds the parameter values and sum them up to find the mean. It saves the output values to the database through

db file = ‘database. csv’

 Figure 10 Shows Database values window
Figure 11 working flow in vs code

  After debugging and running Module2, and Module3, run Module4_prediction.py. This file calculates and produces the predicted output.

The predicted output is difference of two days values and predicted result is the third day value. The predicted output image shows the hotspot images showing hotspot reasons.

Figure 12 Predicted Hotspot regions image map.

The figure above shows the predicting result. It shows resulting hotspot map by the input data maps. These data maps have been collected from NASA Earthdata products of several years. Now we can implement these processes that will get visible in the browser.

Figure 13 Implementation of input img map to create  web app
Figure 14 Web GIS Application applied on leaflet map 

This shows that we can predict future LST by calculating difference of two or more days of different dates (present or past dates).

The third image map given below the two of maps is hotspot image showing the hotspot regions.

Now implement these hotspot img maps on leaflet world map therefore, the hotspot areas are visible on particular reason.

For doing this, we need to add and process leaflet map in our code. How to add leaflet map and processing of leaflet included in methodology.

When map data implemented on leaflet map, the hotspot regions will be as given in figure 14.


Web-based GIS application for LST analysis requires complete knowledge of it in order to make web app without any mistakes. Hence, we have concluded that web GIS applications can be created with a use of less time, using free and open source tools. It is very simple to design a Web GIS application by applying the step-by-step methodology.


  1. Fanon Ananda, Prof. David Kuria and Dr. Moses Ngigi (July 2016), “Towards A New Methodology For Web GIS Development” In Department of Geomatic Engineering and Geospatial Information Systems, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
  2. Aparna Kulkarni (March 2016), “Geo web application for species association with vegetation type and climatic regimes in western Himalaya of Indian landscape” In the University of Twenty, nEnschede Netherlands.
  3. Dr Alberto Cardoso and Dr Driss (September 2016), “Web geographic information systems (web GIS) for smart campus and facility management.” In the University of Cambria.
  4. Dr. Sridhar Vadlapudi (January 2009), “Development of Weather Processing System by Integrating Weather Data into GIS” In Research Scholar, Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Japan. vadlapudi@hotmail.com .
  5. O. Ozdilek, D. Z. Seker (2005) , “A Web-Based Application For Real-Time GIS ” In  ITU, Civil Engineering Faculty, 80626 Maslak Istanbul, Turkey  .
  6. Fanon Ananda, Prof. David Kuria and Dr. Moses Ngigi, Dedan Kimathi University, “Towards A New Methodology for Web GIS Development”, IJSEA, VOL.7, No.4, July 2016.
  7. Fang Miao and Qi Yuan, “A Web GIS-Based Information System for Monitoring and Warning of Geological Disasters for Lanzhou City, China”, Volume 2013, 28 Dec 2013.
  8. Ezekiel Kuria, Stephen Kimani, Agnes Mindila, A Framework for Web GIS Development: A Review, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 –8887) Volume 178 –No. 16, June 2019.
  9. Kostas Gobakisa, Aggeliki Mavrigiannakia, Kostas Kalaitzakisb, Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa, “Design and development of a Web based GIS platform for zero energy settlements monitoring”, Technical University of Crete, Greece, ScienceDirect Energy Procedia 134 (2017).
  10. Janhabi Meher, NIT Rourkela “Rainfall Estimition Using Hydrological Models and Ann Techniques” , Thesis, July-2014.
  11. Jacob J. Gross, Tomoaki Miura, Jonathan Deenik, John Yanagida, “Assessment of Future Agricultural Land Potential Using GIS  and Regional Climate Projections” Thesis, (2014).
  12. Akarsh. A, Dr. N. R. Patel, IIRC,  Department of Space, Gov. of India, “Stimulating Impact of Climate Change on Productivity,Carbon Sequestration and Erosion Process “Thesis, (August 2013).
  13. Yumei Hu, University of Gothenburg Sweden, “Mapping monthly precipitation in Sweden by using GIS” Thesis, (2010)
  14. Fang Miao and Qi Yuan, “Web GIS Baesd Information System for Monitoring and Geological Disasters for Lanzhou City” Volume 2013, (28 Dec 2013).

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