Opinion Mining and Sentiment analysis: A Survey Paper
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Opinion Mining and Sentiment analysis: A Survey Paper

Rashmi B. Ghate1, Prachiti V. Deshpande2, Amit N. Thakare3

1Assistant Professor, Computer EngineeringDepartment, BDCE Sevagram 2Assistant Professor, Computer Engineering Department, BDCE Sevagram 3HOD of Computer Engineering Department, BDCE Sevagram

Abstract

With the growth of technology, an immense amount of data available for the internet end user.  People not only utilize obtainable internet resources but they give their opinions, thoughts, feedbacks, and reviews on anything. These reviews feedbacks and opinion are further analyze by individuals for their more desirable decision making regarding any product, website, places, food, movies etc. Opinion mining and sentiment analysis is belongs to Natural Language Processing, in which text extraction and classification is performed. Opinion mining and sentiment analysis classifies the people’s reviews into positive, negative and neutral opinions. This survey paper focuses on published literature on approaches, applications, challenges, algorithms and tools of sentiment analysis and opinion mining.

Index Terms— Opinion mining, Sentiment analysis, Natural Language Processing, Text Mining.

I. INTRODUCTION

The growth of computerized systems and digital information in every field of day to day life is emerging speedily. As a result immense data are generated in field of technology, medical, marketing, finance, demographic, etc. Opinion mining also called as sentiment analysis is a process of identifying people’s important opinion about a particular topic like news, movies, tourist places, foods galleries, online web contents or product and problem. At the point when any choices are to be made in regard to the buying of new item, hardware, software or electronic items the individuals are a lot of keen on getting the surveys of the different sites, websites or conversation gatherings. In such case opinion mining or sentiment analysis is utilized broadly which manages the state of mind of the individuals with respect to a specific item or product. Opinion mining is a topic deals with the area of Text mining, Natural Language Processing, and Web mining. The aim of Opinion Mining is to make the computerized system able to notice and express emotions.  An Idea, view, or belief based on feelings or emotions rather than reason is called sentiment [1][2].

Opinion mining and Sentiment Analysis, it can be determined as the task of discovering, deriving and classifying Opinions on anything. Opinion mining is essential for e commerce websites, blogs, customer reviews on products, social media data, online portals, web forums and policies, Peoples reviews on these are increasing day by day. It is very problematic to keep a record of the opinions of the peoples. With the help of NL, Sentiment analysis finds the abstract information from the source information.

Opinion mining defined as:  Opinion mining (sentiment mining, opinion/sentiment extraction) is the area of research that attempts to make automatic systems to determine human opinion from texts written in natural language.  It is the process of analyzing the text about a topic written in a natural language. Opinion mining classifies them as Negative, Positive or Neutral, based on the peoples sentiments, emotions and opinions expressed in it. These reviews are used by the individuals and the organization for decision making.  The usefulness of opinion mining is increasing day by day.

 Levels of Opinion Mining:

  • Document Level
  • Sentence Level
  • Aspect Level
  • Document Level:

In the document level task complete document of opinion mining is categorized into two sentiments, positive sentiment and negative sentiments [4].

  • Sentence Level:

In the sentence level task each sentence takes into consideration, whether each sentence represents a positive, negative, or neutral opinion. Neutral opinion represents no opinion [4].

  • Aspect Level:

In the aspect level task neither document, nor sentence takes into consideration, it looks only the opinion. Opinion considers positive, negative, neutral and target. Aspect level sometime called as feature-based opinion mining [4].

Sentiment Analysis:  Sentiment analysis is a part of Natural Language Processing where emotions or opinions of individuals are undermined.  The texts from reviews or opinions are processed to get an accurate description of how the individual feels regarding the subject.

Phases:

  • Preprocessing phase:

The information entered by the client is first cleaned to minimize the noise so that key words could be analyzed.

  • Feature Extraction Phase:

In this stage the key words are given a token and are put under analysis process.

  • Classification Phase:

In this stage all the data is classified. Based on different algorithms. 

SA is essential to examine the every opinion and determine the following:

  • Subjectivity:

The content is analyzed to decide whether it is subjective in nature, implies the analyze content contain any opinionated contents [5].

  • Polarity:

The Polarity is classified into two sorts i.e. positive or negative opinion [5].

  • Polarity Strength:

The polarity can be categorized into diverse levels. Polarity strength can be can be seen as strongly positive, slightly positive, weekly positive, weekly negative, moderately negative, negative, and strongly negative [5].

II.     Literature Survey

Author Bilal Saberi, Saidah Saad done the Survey on Sentiment analysis and Opinion mining [9] in this paper author states the various approaches available for sentiment analysis. An approach consists of Machine Learning, Lexicon-Based and Combination Method. 

Polarity of sentiment is presented by author Jyoti and Seema Rao [10] they also compare the two available tools Weka and Mahout for sentiment analysis.

[2] In this paper author explained certain algorithms that are commonly used in sentimental analysis and opinion mining such as Support vector machine-nearest neighbour, K-means clustering.

B.Sampath Kumar [1] in this perticular  paper,  analyzes the various techniques for sentiment analysis as well as opinion mining and analyzes the various tools for the sentiment analysis and opinion mining

Approaches:

  • Machine Learning Approach:

There are multiple techniques in this group   employed in an effort to gain more salient features. Give accurate information regarding the polarity of Sentiments.

Various ML Approaches [9]::

  • Support Vector Machines (SVM)
  • Naive Bayes (NB)
  • Maximum Entropy (ME)
  • K-Nearest Neighbour
  • Lexicon-Based Approach:

The second group uses a language-inclined approach named the approach focused on lexicon. The analysis is begins with words or sentences representing characteristics of sentiment polarity [9].

  • K-means clustering method is used.
  • Combination Method Approach:

Here is also another community, which is used to combine machine learning with group lexicon.  That’s it.   Combination system community called or semi-supervisor [9].

  • Improved Naïve Bayes and SVM algorithms are used.

Techniques:

Categorization of sentiment analysis is done by these techniques.

1. Machine learning technique

A. Supervised learning

 SVM (Support Vector Machine), NB (Naive Bayes), ME (Maximum Entropy) these methods are used for classifying the users review in supervised learning technique [10].

B. Unsupervised learning

K-Means Clustering method is used is by researcher to classify the opinions about the products. TF-IDF weighting method also used [10].

2. Natural language processing technique

To extract the keywords, entities and sentiments Alchemy API is used. Star rating system solves the fake opinion problem. N-Gram and part of speech extraction is used for pattern identification. Then K-L divergence algorithm is used for removal unwanted comments. Fuzzy logic based sentiment analysis also used in NLP [10].

Algorithms:

A. Classification Algorithm

  1. K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm: This algorithm is used for classification as well as regression [2].
  2. Support Vector Machines Algorithm: SVM Algorithm used for classification, regression and pattern recognition [2].

 B. Clustering Algorithm

  1. K-means clustering algorithm: This is partitioning algorithm, used for contraction and evaluation of different patterns [2].
  2. Self organized Map (SOM) algorithm: This is an artificial neural network (ANN) type of a network. SOM algorithm used to detect the features that are inherent to the Problem [2].

Challenges:

Challenges in Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis:

1.Authority

The adoption of the opinions is very important. The Authority can be analyzed from opinion keeper, example does the opinions are provided by dedicated expert [5].

2. Non-Expert Opinion

The blogs or open discussion forums affected from non expert opinions, particularly for example programming blog or website here opinions of experts are required [5].

3. Spam Opinion Detection

Reliableness of online internet opinions is very important. Web has millions of opinions which may contain spam opinions also [5].

4. Biased or Spam Opinion

Many fraudulent opinions are purposely included to disturb the overall opinion mining process about anything [5]. 

5. Opinion Credibility

One of the important challenges is how to evaluate the integrity of opinions and how to examine the reliability and truthfulness of opinions [5]. 

6. Domain Dependency of Sentiment Analysis

One of the main challenges is the result generated by the sentiment analysis. These words are dependent on the Domain. The features of sentiment analysis may be work well in one domain and poor in other domain [5].

Tools:

Tools used for Sentiment analysis and Opinion mining

1.Review Seer tool

Work done by aggregation sites are automated by Review Seer tool. The Naive Bayes classifier algorithm is apply to gather positive and negative opinions for allocating a total count to the extracted feature terms [1][5].

2. Web Fountain

This tool has excessive performance; expandable features, it completes the requirements of analytical miners like data gathering, storage, indexing, and inquiring. It uses the Base Noun Phrase (bBNP) heuristic approach [1][5].

3. Red Opal

This is an opinion mining tool that allows people to determine the opinion of any products.  This tool allocates the total count to the every product based on extracted features from reviews of customers [1][5].

4. Opinion observer

This system examines and compares the opinions and reviews of peoples on Internet or web by creating peoples reviews and feedbacks. Graphical format is used for showing the result [1][5].

5. Opinion Finder

This tool was developed by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, Cornell University, and the University of Utah. This system processes documents directly recognize intuitive sentences as well as various aspects of subjectivity within sentences [1][5].

Applications:

The applications of Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are as follows

1.To buy a Product or Service

While buying a product or service, there’s a requirement to require a right decision about which is best and which product or service to shop for. By the utilization of opinion mining technique, a user can easily evaluate a product using other’s opinion and knowledge and may easily compare different competing brands [4].

2.Recommendation Systems

Sentiment analysis system is claimed to be an augmentation to recommendation systems because by categorizing the individual’s opinions into positive and negative opinions, the system can say which one should get recommended and which one shouldn’t get recommend. Such a system wouldn’t suggest items that receive tons of feedback [4].

3. Quality Improvement

Companies or manufacturers can gather the experts opinion also because the favorable opinion about their product or service. Counting on the feedback they will upgrade the quality of their product or service. Online product reviews from websites are often taken into consideration [4].

4. Detection of “flames”

Opinion mining can impulsive detect arrogant words, over heated words or hatred language utilized in forum entries or tweets on various internet sources. The observation of newsgroup, forums, blogs and social media are surly possible by Opinion mining and sentiment analysis [4].

5. Marketing research

The results of sentiment analysis techniques are often helpful in market research in order that the recent trends of consumers about some product or services are often analyzed. This will even be supportive to seek out the current point of view of common public towards some new government policy [4].

III. Conclusion

Opinion mining and sentiment analysis is a field of extraction of knowledge from various reviews given by people or user on product or anything.  This paper is giving the overview regarding the opinion mining and sentiment analysis and approaches, algorithms, techniques, tools and challenges.

References

  1. B. Sampath Kumar, “An Analysis on Opinion Mining: Techniques and Tools”, Indian Journal of Research vol: 5, Issue: 8, August 2016
  2. G. Sneka, CT. Vidhya, “Algorithms for Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis: An Overview” IJARCSSE, Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2016
  3. Ion Smeureanu, Cristian Bucur, “Applying Supervised Opinion Mining Techniques on Online User Reviews” ,Informatica Economică vol. 16, no.  2/2012
  4. Dhanashree Kulkarni, Prof S.F.Rodd, “A Survey on Opinion Mining problem and levels of Analysis” ,IJIRSET, Vol. 4, Issue 12,  December 2015
  5. Sarwar Shah Khan, Muzammil Khan, Qiong Ran and Rashid Naseem, “Challenges in Opinion Mining, Comprehensive Review”, Science and technology journal, Vol. 33 No. 11. PP. 123-135, Nov 2018
  6. A’sim Seedahmed Ali, “Opinion Mining Techniques”, IJISET – International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2 Issue 6, June 2015.
  7. Santhosh Kumar K L, Jayanti Desai, Jharna Majumdar, “Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis Online Customer Review”, IEEE International  Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, December 2016
  8. Dr. B. Radha, V. Meera, “A Survey on Research Issues in Opinion Mining”, IJIRCCE, Vol. 5, Issue 2, February 2017
  9. Bilal Saberi, Saidah Saad, “Sentiment Analysis or Opinion Mining: A Review”, International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering Information      Technology, Vol.7 (2017) No. 5   
  10. Jyoti, Seema Rao, “A Survey on Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining”, ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-4213 1/16/08, 2016
  11. Kumar Ravi, Vadlamani Ravi1, “A survey on opinion mining and sentiment analysis: tasks, approaches and applications”, Elsevier, Knowledge Based Systems Vol 89, November 2015,                        Pages 14-46.

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