Volumn 2

Formulation and Evaluation of Compressive Strength of Masonry Cement from Local Materials

Tushar G Shende
Department of Civil Engineering
ITM College of Engineering
Kamptee,India

Dr.Subhash R Choudhari
Principal
J.D. College of Engineering,
Nagpur,India

Abstract

This paper presents the formulation and evaluation of masonry cement from local materials. In construction generally mortar made by OPC and PPC used for the masonry work. Many of researchers found that used of such mortars for masonry work gives definite disadvantage. This type of masonry cement will not only improve the quality of masonry mortars but will also meet the evolving need to increase the production of cement by better utilization of available resources in the country. OPC and Hydrated lime were considered as main binder in the formulation of masonry cement and to improve the other properties, the fly ash were added at the constant rate of 33.33% of(OPC+HL). The compressive strength at 7days and 28 days of all masonry cement mixes were determined; Results confirm the requirement of IS3466:1978.

Keywords– masonry cement; hydrated lime; flyash; OPC

I. Introduction

Lime-sand mortars were in general use until the early 1900’s and many buildings still stand today as the proof of the durability of these early mortars. Today, mixes based only on lime & sand is rare. Virtually all masonry mortar now contains either masonry cement or portland cement mixed with lime at the jobsite. [1] Lime mortars are relatively weaker in strength and slower setting and they sometimes bleed under pressure. Ordinary cement mortars, although fast setting and capable of high strength development, are harsh, non-plastic and non-cohesive with the result that they cannot take up the shrinkage and temperature movements in the masonry and are liable to result in comparatively wide cracks passing right through the bricks or building blocks as compared to a number of evenly distributed hair cracks in the joints which occur when weaker mortars containing lime are used. [2] Properly proportioned and gauged lime-cement mortars can be made to possess the desired properties of a good masonry mortar but the preparation of lime-cement mortars is time consuming and also unslaked lime and magnesia, when present in such mortars, can cause delayed expansion and consequently defects in the masonry and plaster work. In order to avoid the necessity for mixing cement and lime, and in order to minimize the risk of trouble from expansion due to the presence of small quantities of unslaked lime, the use of masonry cement is quite popular in a number of countries abroad and its use should be encouraged in this country also. Masonry cement is chiefly intended for use in masonry mortars for brick, stone and concrete block masonry, and for rendering and plastering work. Because of its property of producing a smooth, plastic, cohesive and strong, yet workable, mortar when mixed with fine aggregates, masonry cement is considered superior to lime mortar, lime-cement mortar or cement mortar.[2]

II. NEED OF MASONRY CEMENT

The traditional mortar material for building work was lime, but to an increasing extent it has been ousted in modern times by cement. This has been due to the desire for higher strength, and in particular for a rapid development of strength. Cement mortars have, however, very definite disadvantages as a masonry material. They are harsh to work and, though strong in themselves, often fail to bond satisfactorily to bricks. Various reasons have been assigned for this, such as the lack of plasticity of the mix; its rapid stiffening as water is sucked out of it into the brickwork, and its low power to retain water against such suction; its shrinkage after setting; and the low elasticity of the hardened material. Similarly, for renderings and stucco, ordinary Portland cement, despite its very wide use, has not proved a satisfactory material. [2,3]

III. LIETRATURE REVIEW

It is found that major researches shows that that every year million tones of industrial wastes are being produced out of which fly ash, granulated slag, play a significant role in contributing towards pollution. These materials pose problems of disposal and health hazards. The main problem that goes unanswered is how to discard these wastes or how to dispose them amicably so that they don’t turn out to disastrous in the near future. Thus the bright minds all over the world have gathered together to resolve this grave issue of wastes by either utilizing them with various products of needs or treat them accordingly so that they don’t harm the natural environment. Ultimately mankind has lately come to the conclusion that instead of eradicating these wastes they can be used as a resourceful waste. Waste material has used in various counties as cement replacement , replacement of aggregate for making mortar and concrete due to their pozzolonic reaction or physical and chemical property.

IV. MATERIAL USED IN RESEARCH WORK

A. ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT

Ordinary Portland cement was used an ingredient of masonry cement for formulation. The sample was taken by referring IS 3535:1986. For determination of chemical property, IS 4032:1985 referred and for physical properties such as fineness, soundness, setting time and compressive strength IS 4031 part (II, III, IV, V&VI):1988 referred. Sample always kept in air tight container for maintain free from moisture.Chemical composition are shown in table1

B. Hydrated Lime

The sample was taken by referring IS 1514:1990. For determination of physical and chemical property, IS 6932 part (I to XI):1973 referred. Sample always kept in air tight container for maintain free from moisture. Chemical composition are shown in table1

C. Fly Ash

The sample was taken by referring IS 6491:1972. For determination of physical and chemical property, IS 1727:1967 referred. Sample always kept in air tight container for maintain free from moisture. Chemical compositions are shown in table1

Table1 Chemical Composition of OPC, Hydrated Lime and Fly Ash

S.NoCompoundOPCHLFly ash
percentage
1Calcium Oxide CaO65.09%74.503.25%
2Silica SiO221.30%7.0858.34%
3Ferric Oxide Fe2O33.81%0.905.23%
4Alumina Al2O35.48%1.9726.34%
5Magnesia MgO0.20%3.740.43%
6Available Alkali0.90%6.521.05%
7Sulphuric Anhydride SO31.30%2.85%
8Loss on Ignition1.80%2.761.88%
9Total Chloride0.01%0.02%

V. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this experimental work, physical and chemical properties were carried out for the suitability of local materials as an ingredient of masonry cement. For that purpose two materials are chosen on the basis of literature review. OPC and Hydrated lime were considered as main binder in the formulation of masonry cement and to improve the other properties, the fly ash were added at the constant rate of 33.33 % of (OPC+HL). The compressive strength at 7 days and 28 days of all formulated masonry cement were determined.

VI. FORMULATION AND TESTING

A. Formulation of masonry cement

Total 12 mix proportions were formulated. First six mixes formulated by keeping the variation in the percentage of OPC and Fly ash, OPC were replace by Hydrated Lime at a rate of 30%, 40%, 50%60%and 70%. Continue to previous six mix proportion the Fly ash percentage remain constant i.e.50% of (OPC+HL) in the next six mix proportions. Mix proportions are shown in table2

Table1 Mix proportion of masonry cement

MixCEHLFA
M11100.000.000.00
M2170.0030.000.00
M3160.0040.000.00
M4150.0050.000.00
M5140.0060.000.00
M6130.0070.000.00
M1266.670.0033.33
M2246.6720.0033.33
M3240.0026.6733.33
M4233.3333.3333.33
33.33M5226.6740.00
M6220.0046.6733.33

B. Testing of compressive strength of masonry cement

All the 12 mix proportions were castes by referring IS 4031(part VII):1988.50mm cube size mould were used for the research work. Experimental setup are shown in fig.1

Experimental Setup for testing of compressive strength

VII. RESULT AND CONCLUSION

A. Result of compressive strength of masonry cement

The result of Total 12 mix proportions were divided in two categories, first six mixes of masonry cement consist of 0% fly ash and results of 7 days and 28 days strength are shown in fig.2 formulated. Remaining six mixes consist of OPC plus hydrated lime and fly ash and results of 7 days and 28 days strength are shown in fig.3

fig.2 Relationship between compressive strength at 7 days & 28 days and masonry cement consist of (OPC+HL)

It is found that above all the mix proportions are confirming the compressive strength at 7 days and 28 days requirements of IS 3466:1988.

fig.3 Relationship between compressive strength at 7 days & 28 days and masonry cement consist of (OPC+HL+FA)

It is found that above all the mix proportions are confirming the compressive strength at 7 days and 28 days requirements of IS 3466:1988 except two masonry cement i.e. first masonry cement consist of 26.67%OPC +40% hydrated lime + 33.33 % fly ash and second masonry cement consist of 20%OPC +46.67% hydrated lime + 33.33 % fly ash.

B. Conclusion

Compressive strength of all the mix propotions of masonry cement shows linear results at 7 days and 28 days .During testing of cube moulds it is found that the deformation is high though its compressive strength is lower than 100 % OPC. Percentage of hydrated lime increase the compressive strength linearly decrease .Compared with 100% OPC the compressive strength value of masonry cement is low but for masonry work it is suitable.Results shows local material are suitable as an ingredients of masonry cement.

Acknowledgment

All the testing work is carried out Concrete Technology lab of ITMCOE ,Kamptee. Authors are very much thankful to the management of college.

REFRENCE

  1. Copeland, R. E. & E. L. Saxer, “Tests of Structural Bond of Masonry Mortars to Concrete Block”, Journal of the American Concrete Institute , November 1964, pages 1411-52 .
  2. “Standard Specification for Masonry Cement”, C 91, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania19103.
  3. “Indian Standard Specification for Masonry Cement”, IS 3466, BIS, 1988 Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg New Delhi 110002
  4. “MASONRY CEMENT An Industry view after 1930 onwards”, Esstech, Essroc Technical notes for masonry, 3251 Bath Pike Nazareth, PA 18064
  5. “Masonry Information”, IS 181.04M, Portland Cement Association, 5420 Old Orchard Road Skokie, Illinois 60077
  6. S.S.Bagchi,R.T.jadhav,”Blended cement by using fly ash for masonry and plastering work” Indian Journal environmental Protection Vol 29,No.7 July 2009,pages 649-652
  7. “Methods of Test For Pozzolanic Materials ”, IS 1727, BIS, 1999 Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg New Delhi 110002
  8. “Method of physical tests for Hydraulic cement Part 7 Determination of Compressive Strength of Masonry Cement”, IS 4031(Part-VII), BIS, 1988 Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg New Delhi 110002

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