Challenges & Opportunities for Automobile Vehicles in Smart Cities in India
Volumn 4

Challenges & Opportunities for Automobile Vehicles in Smart Cities in India

Samir Telang#1, Anant Nemade*2, Arvind Chel#3

# Lecturer in Automobile & Mechanical  Engineering, Government Polytechnic, Aurangabad(M.S) India -431005

Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering , Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College, Aurangabad, India

1samirtelang@rediffmail.com

2 nemadeaw@gmail.com

3 dr.arvindchel@gmail.com

Abstract

India’s recent sturdily stance on Smart City Development and involvement of many high income countries; initiates the talk of ideal variables for smart city evolution by our own standards. With a vision of Urban Governance for general liability, it becomes imperative to study these parameters and ensure the evolution of our own concept of a Smart City. Our spatial planning models based on unique factors such as Human Diversity, Physical-Social networks and ICT impact on urban Automobile , City resilience, etc. make it all the more interesting to evolve a blueprint for Planning a Smart City. The paper centers the challenges and opportunities for Automobile Vehicles in Smart city comprises with not only two, three, four vehicle but also off road vehicle like Tractors, Commercial Heavy Vehicles also. Automobile Industries also needs to be introducing special vehicle / Models developments for the Smart Urban Development in India. The research helps us arrive at a general line of action for Urban Planning implications catering to the Automobile RSR Sector, amongst others; thus affecting environmental, social and economic structure significantly. The study further finds the scope of progress, encouraged from various government policies for successful Development of Various vehicle useful in  Smart City. It also allows a peek into future scenario of improvements and deliberations particular to Indian Automotive standards in consideration with the scenario of other countries.

Keywords —Automobile Vehicles, RSR Sector , Smart City, Development, Environment

Introduction

Engineers at the   Automotive Industries Research have concerned themselves with a new worldwide research endeavour: the development of smart cities. Among other projects, through its participation in the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Global City Teams Challenge, Automobile Vehicle has channelled its academic and industry expertise toward the development of life-enhancing transportation methods.

Smart cities are distinguished by their interconnectivity. By transferring data between people and devices across standard interfaces, these metropolises emphasize information. In order to create these smart environments, researchers require in-depth knowledge on energy consumption, usability and availability of resources and user behaviour habits. It is with this information that developers are then able to plan, support and operate the functions required to make a smart city successful.

The highly connected nature of today’s society has contributed to how truly realistic smart cities are. Moving forward, researchers aim to develop common interfaces in which these interactions can take place. Ultimately, it is their aim to have all platforms interacting with each other.

The Center for Automotive Research is invested in the creation of public transformation methods that capitalize on this connectivity, to optimize efficiency. Automobile Vehicle engineers’ notion of smarter urban transport includes access to any and all types of transportation, and includes a special focus on the real issue of addressing the needs of an aging population.

Automobile Vehicles  proposed for smart city solutions include on-demand automated shuttles (which can increase efficiency in traffic-dense areas), collision avoidance, environmentally conscious efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, NOx,Particulate matter (PM). These particles of soot and metals give smog its murky color, Hydrocarbons (HC)., Nitrogen oxides (NOx).Carbon monoxide (CO). , Sulphur dioxide (SO2). , Hazardous air pollutants (toxics). Greenhouse gases and social acceptance of automated vehicles. Automobile Solar Vehicles, Battery Operated Car, Two wheelers with High power also suitable for Smart Cities.

In Smart Cities other Automobile Accessories like keyless entry in Car, two wheeler and other Special Purpose Vehicles, Parking Guidance devices, Vehicle Distance alarm systems etc. are also play a significant role.

SAFETY

Automobile Researchers   possess expertise in advanced vehicle safety research and development. This led them to be awarded the Crash Imminent Safety y Transportation Center by the them of Transportation improve the ways humans interact with intelligent, autonomous and semiautonomous vehicles. With collaborations that span the automotive industry, Center for Intelligent Transportation Research engineers design superior active safety and driver assistance systems, and strive to improve driver experiences in areas such as lane departure, automated parking, and pedestrian detection, to name a few.

Additionally, Automobile Researchers     investigate the types of risk associated with automotive situations. With an exceptional knowledge of how mechanical and behavioural factors contribute to human injury, researchers are able to develop solutions that prevent these risks from becoming reality.

Advance vehicle SAFETY

Automotive Research are guided by their goal to make vehicles safer.  As they strive to ensure drivers avoid accidents, Automobile Researchers   assist in designing better active safety systems, in addition to advanced driver assistance systems. Other topics of research exploration include: lane departure warning, lane keeping assistance, rollover warning, propensity, and mitigation, yaw stability, electronic stability control, vehicle active safety, adaptive cruise control, collision warning and avoidance, automated parking, night vision, overtake assistance, pedestrian detection and warning, and vulnerable road user detection and warning.

Automobile Researchers   works closely with industry leaders to develop impactful safety solutions, some of which have been used in production vehicles. In collaboration with its partners, the center develops related patents, and proceeds to build and test these systems with loop hardware and software and road examinations. With  collaborative support and numerous   resources.

Intelligent transportation systems   

Since the 1990’s, researchers   have sought to improve safety measures that protect the average driver. Correspondingly, many Automobile OEM’s development  of intelligent transport systems specially for Urban usage  vehicles.

Automobile Researchers   have developed solutions that encompass a range of intelligent transportation issues,  including: automated driving and parking, cooperative mobility, smart cities, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, traffic management systems, vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, cooperative and adaptive cruise control, and connected and intelligent vehicles.

Automobile Researchers  taken  efforts for enabled by a vast amount of resources. With their-designed and built fleet of connected and automated vehicles on hand, and access to the proving grounds of the Transportation Research Center that test each technology under real-world conditions,  researchers take their theoretical understanding of automotive safety to the next level.

In addition to its application of concepts and fleet of connected and automated vehicles, Automobile Researchers   are attuned to the on-going policy debate about the role of driverless cars in today’s society.  This development, though life-enhancing, has surprised the public in terms of how society has previously viewed personal transportation.

Automobiles have become interactive electronic systems that constantly interface with the world outside the vehicle; individual cars are no longer contained entities. In the face of these social implications,  Automobile Researchers   with industry-experienced technical manpower  from the society  to keep the public perception in mind throughout the research process.

In their support of driverless cars, researchers at various OSM strive to find solutions in the areas of liability, fuel economy regulation and protection of public well-being.

Fuel Economy

Fuel economy and emissions are two of the principal regulatory drivers – the third being safety, with a direct impact on the automotive industry. CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) regulations demand continuous improvements in fleet fuel economy, while the Environmental Protection Agency regulates criteria tailpipe emissions from mobile sources. Automobile Researchers   specializes in fuel economy and exhaust emissions research that is aimed at optimizing all related systems, with expertise that spans all aspects of fuel economy (engine efficiency, powertrain hybridization, friction reduction, aerodynamics), and exhaust emissions in cylinder reduction and after treatment.

In addition to its research expertise,   also provides Training & Consultancy engineering services in support of fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction technology development, and has created an environment in which stakeholders are involved in related studies not only through sponsored research programs, but also through applied projects.  On regular basis there are number of research provides Convenience   , comfort, Safety, effortless driving conditions lead to the Smart vehicle for Smart Cities.For smart cities we have number of different fuel systems like Solar , Electric , Alternative fuels widely useful for vehicle

ROLE OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRIES IN SMART CITIES

In the field of automotive technology, advances have been ongoing for some time in technologies for electrification and in research into new fuel technologies to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, with progress being made in basic performance (driving, cornering, stopping, etc.) to provide overall driving performance and the means for mobility and transportation. In the case of electrification, technologies for hybrids and EVs have been adopted from other fields, such as metros, railways, where they are already in use, with remarkable progress having been made in the core technologies of motors, inverters, and batteries . Advances in ICT, meanwhile, have allowed the social infrastructure to deliver new possibilities to consumers by becoming more tightly interconnected than in the past. This trend is also evident in the automotive sector, with growing use of ICT in vehicle and traffic infrastructure and moves toward using increasingly advanced automotive technology and the resources it provides as part of the energy and social infrastructure. Also, the large amount of operational data collected from different types of sensors is giving birth to services that use these data. Along with all these changes, the development of technologies for integrating vehicles into the social infrastructure is proceeding on a global scale. Recognizing these trends, Hitachi is proceeding with demonstration experiments in India, establishing projects that use vehicles as part of the energy and social infrastructure. Hybrids, EVs, and other electrically powered vehicles emit low levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and help reduce dependence on fossil fuels. To make  Automotive Technologies for Smart Cities and their Global Deployment – The most of their potential to form part of the energy and social infrastructure, however, they require connections to the electric power supply infrastructure. The shorter range of current EVs compared to gasoline-powered vehicles means that charging infrastructure is also needed. Rather than looking at the characteristics of EVs in direct comparison with gasoline-powered vehicles, Hitachi supplies a variety of EV solutions that can be used in ways that seek to make the most of these characteristics. The following sections describe some of these solutions.

MAJOR CHALLENGES

While there is a need to augment the work towards improving the transportation in the country, there are some inherent challenges and threats:

Inadequate and inefficient public transport infrastructure

  • Inadequate public transport
  • Road congestion

Transport Emissions & Air Quality

  • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
  • India is still following BS IV as against EURO 6 implemented in European countries, which is equivalent to BS VI

Inadequately implemented Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Inadequate setups for Electronic toll collection (ETC) and traffic monitoring
  • Fewer Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) & multi-level Parking Systems

To move into an era of smart transportation in India, thrust is on better infrastructure, legislative provisions towards sustainable fuels, CNG-based public transport vehicles, and successfully implementing urban mass mobility schemes to efficiently provide mobility services to ever-expanding cities. Smart transportation can be ushered in through improvements in four major areas:

SMART AUTOMOBILES

Technological advancements are helping manufacturers offer many useful features in automobiles. Today emphasis is on refined engines with high performance, safe design, sustainable/green fuels, adherence to latest emission norms (Bharat Stage (BS) IV in India, Euro VI Standard worldwide), connected cars/IoT, wearable devices, driverless vehicles, and fuel efficiency.

Vehicle technologies Today, auto technology on sale allows cars to “see” all around, gathering data on possible roadway concerns and giving drivers eyes in the back of their heads. Since most of the crashes involve driver error, automakers created a range of safety systems that aid drivers for brief periods to help avoid accidents. Driver assist systems include lane departure and blind spot warnings, adaptive cruise control, automatic braking, telematics control systems and more.

Few of the technological advancements made in India include – Anti-lock braking system & Electronic Stability Program – With a study showing how Electronic Stability Program (ESP) can save upto 10,000 lives in India and how ABS can play a major part in avoiding most accidents, OEMs and electronic giants in India are on the forefront of the movement asking for these safety systems to be offered as compulsory and standard equipment on all passenger cars in India.

A leading auto component giant in India has also conducted a specific research on how ESP in India could help reduce accidents and the preliminary results are quite startling. Based on the same study, it is claimed that up to 70 percent of accidents that involve a vehicle skidding could be eliminated with ESP saving upwards of 10000 lives in India every year. As per the study, currently, nearly 40 percent of all new cars made in India come with ABS fitted. Whereas, only about 4-5 percent of all new cars come with ESP. If automotive manufacturers are serious about road safety, this figure needs to go up drastically in the next few years. Co-incidentally, ABS has already been made compulsory in commercial vehicles from September 1, 2015 with an announcement for ABS in two wheelers over a certain cubic capacity expected any day now.

Automated Manual Transmission – The electronic transmission control unit helps in engaging and disengaging the clutch and gear through an electronic actuator. It also has a sports mode, which enables drivers to move to the manual shifting of gear to increase and decrease the gear ratios with plus and minus either through gear knob /joystick or the steering. Crash Testing – The Government of India is finally enforcing stringent crash test norms to be mandatory for all new cars from October 2017, while for upgrades of existing models, the deadline will be October 2018. New minimum safety norms, including frontal and side crash tests, will apply to all cars —entry level, small and cheaper models. As per the new order by Government, cars would be tested for frontal crash norms at 56 kmph, while for the side crash test, it will be at 50 kmph.4 Automation & Traceability – Global leaders in the field of automation and electronic components in automotive industry have come up with a wide gamut of solutions in safety components, automation, auto sensors, etc.

Automation is now selectively customised and can trace the genesis of the error. Further, the vision systems in use not only identifies whether the quality is acceptable or not, it can also store the image for future analysis.5 Soft-feel interiors – creates a subtle, but powerful emotional connection. From the console, door handle and door trim, to the arm rest and glove box covers, the way a surface feels to the touch – a sensation called “haptics” – lends a feeling of quality to vehicle interiors.

Enhanced driving comfort and safety features such as use of High Strength Steel (HSS) – various strengthening mechanisms are employed to achieve a range of strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue properties. These steels are uniquely light weight and engineered to meet the challenges of today’s vehicles for stringent safety regulations, emissions reduction, solid performance, at affordable costs. At the same time at a global level, technologies like driverless cars, Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication technology for light vehicles to avoid crashes, Pre-collision technology have also been developed.

ELECTRIC VEHILCES

As per a 2012 study by the Center of Automotive Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, the worldwide trend for light-vehicle production is a gradual shift towards hybrid and electric vehicles. By 2030, 56% vehicles produced would use combustion engines, 35% hybrid technologies and 9% electric power. Which means a whopping 44% of small vehicles would not use a combustion engine to produce energy to run the vehicle. This would reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions to a significant level. 100% battery-driven electrical vehicles (EVs) are the ultimate goal of the vehicle alternative powertrain development over the next 15-20 years. The focus is towards fuel efficiency and reducing Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Hence electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (dual fuel) and fuel cell vehicles seem to be the future of vehicle technology. In India dual-fuel vehicles running on petrol/diesel and CNG are becoming popular. In the electric vehicle segment, brands like Mahindra, Toyota and BMW have created a presence in Indian market.6 Indian Government has developed a National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 which proposes to incentivise adoption of green vehicles and facilitate domestic manufacturing capability in automobile sector. As part of the Foreign Trade Policy, Government is providing subsidy in the form of exemption of duties on parts of green vehicles. The Indian market for electric vehicles is still nascent as the challenge is to augment charging infrastructure in big cities immediately to promote migration to electric vehicles. It has been projected that electric vehicles could account for close to 5% of the Indian car market, or 175,000 cars, by 2017, while the global market for the vehicles could reach about 20 million cars by 2020.7 Considering the slow pace of infrastructural development in India, we still have a long way to catch up with the global standards and technologies.

SMART FUEL & BETTER EMMISION STANDARDS

Due to rapid urbanization, there is an increase in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions contributing to an expanding carbon footprint and forcing the need for adoption of a clean and sustainable technology. As a step to control these emissions, the Supreme Court banned the sale of vehicles with diesel engines of 2,000 cc capacity and more in Delhi NCR. As per estimates from EPCA (Environment Protection and Conservation Authority) reports, during this period, 7,000 to 30,000 vehicles had been diverted away from the city, resulting in a 19-20% fall in pollution levels. However, it has also left manufacturers and dealers with unsold inventory levels and uncertainty in the market. This has resulted in opportunity loss as well as job loss at dealers.

Alternative fuels : Bio-fuels, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) are clean fuels. Besides these, electric and solar powered vehicles are also being promoted. Vehicles running on hydrogen as fuel and using fuel cell technology are also a clean option. CNG has already become a popular fuel in India due to its low cost. However, it needs infrastructure support in terms of more number of fuelling stations and accessability. Biodiesel is another alternate fuel with diesel like qualities. It is synthesized through simple chemical reaction of alcohols with vegetable oils. In India, oil from Jatropha and Karanjia seeds is used to produce biodiesel. The state owned company, Indian Oil is conducting extensive field trials in collaboration with Indian Railways, Haryana Roadways, and TATA Group. Initial studies have suggested significant reduction in smoke density (10-15%) on using biodiesel blends as fuels. Clean fuel technologies are applicable in all modes of transport, viz. roads/BRTs, MRTs, railways, freight, waterborne transport and aviation. In 2015, for the first time Indian Railways used CNG as a fuel for a passenger train. It has a 1400 HP engine which runs on dual fuel – diesel and CNG – through fumigation technology. Emission standards : India follows Bharat Stage (BS) emission standards. The emission standards are instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles. These are based on the European standards and are regularlyupgraded following the European standards. In April 2010, Bharat Stage IV standard for 13 Metro cities was implemented and the rest of the country moved to Bharat Stage III. Bharat stage IV has been further extended to additional 20 cities from October 2014. The Second Auto Fuel Vision and Policy 2025 notified by Government of India in May 2014 lays the map for fuel emission norms up to 2025. In order to adopt the latest emission standards, Government of India has decided to completely skip BS V norms and has announced to adopt and implement BS VI norms from April 2020. On comparison with other countries, Euro 6 (equivalent to BS VI) has already been implemented in Europe effective 2014. Therefore, besides vehicular technologies and emission norms, other two important factors to be considered in India for reducing carbon emission are periodic inspection, maintenance of in-use vehicles and better road and traffic management.

OEMS TO BE BENIFITFROM THE CHALLENGES

The Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) share of profit growth will come from higher sales. But beyond selling more cars, the industry is changing in more fundamental ways  Greening gets more expensive – Carbon dioxide regulation is likely to continue to tighten, not just in Europe; China, the US, and Japan have also enacted laws to reduce emissions. One immediate result will be higher costs. Because the easy things have already been done, the price of cutting future emissions is rising. As per a Mckinsey report on ‘The road to 2020 and beyond’ on automotive industry, in Europe, the 2020 target might be reached with the help of advanced conventional technologies, but to meet the overall fleet targets, more electrification could be necessary (especially for premium players). This will push OEMs to invest more in e-mobility, meaning electrical/hybrid powertrains, lightweight batteries, advanced internal combustion engines, including cylinder deactivation or variable valve timing, etc. On the other hand, they need to invest in alternative powertrain technologies to meet future emissions targets – without knowing which kind of technologies will prevail. Managing these pressures will be a fact of OEM life to 2025 and beyond. Connectivity becomes more important Cars on the road are being equipped with danger-warning applications, traffic information services, and a host of infotainment features and increasingly active safety features as well. As per the Mckinsey report, The road to 2020 and beyond on automotive industry, number of networked cars will rise 30 percent a year for the next several years; by 2020, one in five cars will be connected to the Internet. These cars will be in the premium segment (approximately 50 percent) and increasingly in the value segment as well, where many of them will have network solutions by 2020 (compared to 3 percent in 2011). Delivering services through the car – Internet radio, smartphone capabilities, information/entertainment services, driver-assistance apps, tourism information, and the like – is a promising area for differentiation. So is the creation of new technical features for safe, comfortable, and eventually, autonomous driving. To deliver on this, OEMs will have to manage shorter product and service development cycles, such as software and other technology updates. They will also need to build relationships with affiliated firms that build apps tailored to the car. Research & Development (R&D) As per AT Kearney research, auto companies spend third most on the research. This further has to be ensured by the OEMs to do sufficient in this field to come at par with consumer demands and technological advancements. National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP) in India, the largest and one of the most significant initiatives in Automotive sector so far, represents a unique joining of hands between the Government of India, a number of state governments and Indian automotive industry to create a state of the art testing, validation and R&D infrastructure in the country. The project aims at creating core global competencies in the automotive sector in India and facilitate seamless integration of Indian automotive industry with the world as also to position the country prominently on the global automotive map.

CONCLUSION   

People’s way of life is coming to a turning point, with the era in which prosperity could be pursued without regard for the limited nature of energy resources coming to a close, and society recognizing that there is a limit to how long we can continue to take energy for granted. The electricity shortages that India has faced since the Shortages of coal have directed considerable attention toward smart cities. Although debate so far has focused primarily on technical considerations, the scope is now expanding to include non-technical discussions with a central role for consumers, covering such matters as customer value creation, supply chain management, and customer engagement, and also discussions focusing on what to do about things like systems and regulations. As a result, smart cities are moving on from the planning and demonstrating phases of the past to the phase in which business models are established and actual work proceeds. TATA Motors & Mahindra and Mahindra is proceeding with the fusion of automotive technology with energy and social infrastructure, establishing solution packages that take advantage of things like the characteristics of EVs through leading edge. In the future, it is anticipated that new social value will be created by fusing these with a wide range of social infrastructure, including fuel cells and autonomous driving systems.

REFERENCES

  1. Al-Hader, M., Rodzi, A., Sharif, A. R., & Ahmad, N. (2009a). Smart city components architecture. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation, (Brno, Czech Republic, Sep 7-9)
  2. Al-Hader, M., Rodzi, A., Sharif, A. R., & Ahmad, N. (2009b). SOA of smart city geospatial management.In Proceedings of the 3rd UKSim European Symposium on Computer Modeling and Simulation (Athens, Greece, Nov 25-27).Available at http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/EMS.2009.112.
  3. Anderson, G., &Tregoning, H. (1998). Smart growth in our future? In Urban Land Institute (Ed.), ULI on the Future: Smart Growth (pp. 4-11). Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
  4. Anthopoulos, L., &Fitsilis, P. (2010a). From digital to ubiquitous cities: Defining a common architecture for urban development. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Jul 19-21).
  5. Anthopoulos, L., &Fitsilis, P. (2010b). From online to ubiquitous cities: The technical transformation of virtual communities. In A. B. Sideridis& C. Z. Patrikakis (Eds.), Next Generation Society: Technological and Legal Issues (Proceedings of the Third International Conference, eDemocracy 2009, Athens, Greece, Sep 23-25, 2009) (Vol. 26, pp. 360-372). Berlin, Germany: Springer. Available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/g644776482968k36/ful ltext.pdf.
  6. Anthopoulos, L., &Tsoukalas, I. A. (2005). The implementation model of a digital city. Journal of EGovernment, 2(2), 91-110.
  7. Bartlett, L. (2005). Smart city: Social entrepreneurship and community engagement in a rural regional city. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Engaging Communities, (Brisbane, Australia, Aug 14-17).Available at http://www.engagingcommunities2005.org/abstracts/BartletLeo-final.pdf.
  8. Beatley, T., & Collins, R. (2000). Smart growth and beyond: Transitioning to a sustainable society. Virginia Environmental Law Journal, 19, 287-322.
  9. Benfield, F. K., Terris, J., &Vorsanger, N. (2001). Solving Sprawl: Models of Smart Growth in Communities across America. New York: National Resources Defense Council.
  10. Borja, J. (2007). Counterpoint: Intelligent cities and innovative cities. UniversitatOberta de Catalunya (UOC) Papers: E-Journal on the Knowledge Society, 5. Available at http://www.uoc.edu/uocpapers/5/dt/eng/mitchell.pdf.
  11. Petrolo R, Loscrí V, Mitton N. Towards a smart city based on cloud of things. In: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM international workshop on Wireless and mobile technologies for smart cities – WiMobCity ’14. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press; 2014:61- 66. doi:10.1145/2633661.2633667.
  12. Dempster AP. A Generalization of Bayesian Inference. J R Stat SocSer B. 1968;30:205-247.
  13. Shafer G. A Mathematical Theory of Evidence.PrincetUniv Press. 1976.
  14. Tazid Ali, PalashDutta HB. A New Combination Rule for Conflict Problem of Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory.Int J Energy, InfCommun. 2012;3:35-40.
  15. Yoon S, Suh and D. A Novel Way of BPA Calculation for Context Inference using Sensor Signals.Int J Smart Home.2014. doi:10.14257/ijsh.2014.8.1.01.
  16. Javadi E, Moshiri B, Yazdi HS. Activity Recognition In Smart Home Using Weighted Dempster-Shafer Theory. Int J Smart Home. 2013;7(6):23-34. doi:10.14257/ijsh.2013.7.6.03.
  17. Uceda-Sosa R, Srivastava B, Schloss RJ. Building a highly consumable semantic model for smarter cities. In: Proceedings of the AI for an Intelligent Planet on – AIIP ’11. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press; 2011:1-8. doi:10.1145/2018316.2018319.
  18. Domingue J, Galis A, Gavras A, et al., eds. The Future Internet. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2011. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-20898-0.
  19. Murty RN, Mainland G, Rose I, et al. CitySense: An Urban-Scale Wireless Sensor Network and Testbed. In: 2008 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security. IEEE; 2008:583-588. doi:10.1109/THS.2008.4534518.

Related posts

Description and Validation of Multi Objection Automated Online/Offline Signature Verification Using Semantic Feature Extraction

admin

Basics of Organic and Inorganic Luminescence

admin

A Survey of Gait Recognition Using FPCA And RPCA

admin

Leave a Comment