1 Sanjay Balwani,2Shubhangi Janiyani, , 3 Trupti Indurkar, 4 Namrata Dhondse, 5 Pranali Maliye
2,3,4,5 B.E. Final Year, 1Assistant Professor,
1,2,3,4,5 Department of Electronics & Telecommunication, Jhulelal Institute of Technology,
Nagpur, Maharastra, India
The aim of this research paper is to illustrate the convenience and versatility of an automatic toll plaza system using Zig bee technology and its advantages over toll plazas using other techniques. With the number of vehicles increasing every year, the time and fuel wasted on waiting at the toll plazas is ever increasing. Automatic toll plazas can eliminate this wastage of time, fuel and enhance the vehicle security by providing a host of other features such as sending a text message to the registered mobile number of the owner, displaying the information about the vehicle on the display in addition to automatic opening and closing of the barricade. The toll is deducted from the vehicle owner’s prepaid account. Intelligent toll tax is designed automatically to keep track of the vehicle’s movement, record the time and details like owner’s name, date of registration, vehicle model etc. This system is very useful for automatic vehicle tracking, time management and also for automation of toll gate. Intelligent toll tax is a step towards improving the tracking and monitoring of vehicles, travelling in predetermined routes. In this system, a computerised system automatically identifies an approaching vehicle and records the vehicle number and time. If the vehicle belongs to the authorised person, it automatically opens the toll gate and a predetermined amount is automatically deducted from its account. Intelligent toll tax also helps in controlling the level of congestion with more accuracy, by allowing the road users to use dynamic pricing instead of fixed-step toll schedule.
Keywords– Zig bee, Toll plaza
Now a day’s highway plays a vital role in social and economical development, with a development of economy the growth of highway becoming faster. Number of vehicle passing through the toll plaza, a manual system is time consuming thus there is a long queue of vehicle to pass the toll plaza. To overcome the problem of manual toll system we propose an intelligent toll tax system. It is a technology for collection of toll should be such as to ensure smooth flow of traffic in efficient and faster way. Electronic Toll is an element of Intelligent Traffic System which allows nonstop toll collection as well as continuous monitoring of traffic. Functioning of intelligent toll tax system allow more efficient electronic monetary transaction to take place between a vehicle and toll agency. There are many benefits of using Intelligent Toll Tax namely; reduce time, reduction in vehicle emissions, increase in lane capacity and convenience to the users. Intelligent toll tax also helps in controlling the level of congestion with more accuracy, by allowing the road users to use dynamic pricing instead of fixed-step toll schedule. Zig Bee is a wireless high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. It is simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth. Zig Bee is suitable for applications where a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking is required. Zig Bee-compliant wireless devices are expected to transmit from 10 to 100 meters. Each vehicle is equipped with Zig Bee transceiver.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
There are different methods that can be used to implement automated toll collection. By doing survey, different methods that were found out are as follows:
- In  the automated toll plaza is implemented based on image processing. Here the number plate of the vehicle is captured using a camera and the toll is deducted by matching the number plate with the database.
- In  system is based on infrared sensors. Initially the user has to get a transmitter from the office which will consist of all the details of the user. As the user arrives at the toll plaza, the transmitter needs to be positioned in such a way that it comes in line of sight of with the receiver. Once this is achieved the switch is pressed and the receiver will search for a match in the database and the desired amount will be deducted.
- In  the system is entirely based on RFID Technology. As the RFID tag comes in the range of the reader stipulated amount is deducted after matching the information from the database and the gate that is controlled by the motor allows the vehicle to pass through it.
The remaining references are quite similar to . Our project is based on Zig bee technology. We have also included GSM module in our project which is considered to be future scope in most of the papers.
III. PROPOSED SYSTEM
The major components of the transmitter section as shown in the block diagram are as follows:
- Microcontroller 89C2051
- RF module(Zig bee)
- LCD Display
3.1 Microcontroller 89C2051
The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.
3.2 RF Module
CC2500 is a FSK/MSK transceiver module. It provide extensive hardware port for packet handling, data buffering, burst transmissions, clear channel assessment, link quality indication and wake on radio. Its data stream can be Manchester coded by the modulator and decoded by the demodulator. It has a high performance and easy to design your product. It can be used in 2400-2483.5 MHz ISM/SRD band systems, Consumer Electronics, Active RFID, Wireless game controllers, Wireless KB/Mouse and other wireless systems.
- Baud rate ( 9600 )
- Works on ISM band (2.4 GHz)
- Designed to be as easy to use as cables.
- No external Antenna required.
- Plug and play device.
- Works on 5V DC supply
- Range 20 Meters
- Both TTL and RS232 Outputs
3.3 DC Motor with driver (L293D)
This is a motor driver that can drive two motor simultaneously. L293D IC is a dual H-bridge motor driver IC. One H-bridge is capable to drive a dc motor in bidirectional. L293D IC is a current enhancing IC as the output from the sensor is not able to drive motors itself so L293D is used for this purpose. L293D is a 16 pin IC having two enables pins which should always be high to enable both the H-bridges.
- Wide Supply-Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V
- Separate Input-Logic Supply
- Internal ESD Protection
- Thermal Shutdown
- High-Noise-Immunity Inputs
3.4 LCD Display
The display contains two internal byte-wide registers, one for commands (RS=0) and the second for characters to be displayed (RS=1). It also contains a user-programmed
RAM area (the character RAM) that can be programmed to generate any desired character that can be formed using a dot matrix. To distinguish between these two data areas, the hex command byte 80 will be used to signify that the display RAM address 00h will be chosen.Port1 is used to furnish the command or data type, and ports 3.2 to 3.4 furnish register select and read/write levels. The display takes varying amounts of time to accomplish the functions as listed. LCD bit 7 is monitored for logic high (busy) to ensure the display is overwritten. Liquid Crystal Display also called as LCD is very helpful in providing user interface as well as for debugging purpose. The most common type of LCD controller is HITACHI 44780 which provides a simple interface between the controller & an LCD. These LCD’s are very simple to interface with the controller as well as are cost effective.
The Microcontroller and the LCD display shown in the block diagram of the receiver are similar to the one used in the transmitter.
The additional components are as follows:
- IR Sensor
- GSM Module (Sim 300)
- Motor Driver (L293D)
3.5 IR Sensor
An object can be detected with an infrared system consisting of an infrared transmitter and a receiver. More in detail an IR transmitter, also known as IR LED, sends an infrared signal with a certain frequency compatible with an IR receiver which has the task to detect it. There are different kind of IR sensors for different type of application. IR technology is used, for example, in proximity sensors to detect a near object, in contrast sensors to find a path or in counting sensors to count objects.
3.6 GSM module (SIM 300)
SIM 300 is a GSM modem with a simple serial interface. SIM 300 modem can accept any GSM network operator SIM card and act just like a mobile phone with its own unique phone number. With this module one can send/receive sms, connect to internet via GPRS and receive calls. The modem can either be connected to PC serial port directly or to any microcontroller.
- Uses SIM300 GSM module transmission.
- Operating Voltage: 7 – 15V AC or DC (board has onboard rectifier.
- Comes with an onboard wire antenna for better reception.
- Can be used for Data/Fax, GSM based Voice communications, TCP/IP stack, GPRS and SMS.
- SIM300 allows an adjustable serial baud rate from 1200 to 115200 bps (9600 default).
- Provides RS232 interface for connection to computers and other devices.
- Lithium Battery holder
- Can add external antenna with SMA connectors.
- Power, RING and Network LEDs for easy debugging.
- Provides serial TTL interface for easy and direct interface to microcontrollers.
- Can be controlled through standard AT commands.
IV. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
The figure above shows the block diagram of transmitter section of the mentioned system. As shown in the figure, this section consists of Microcontroller AT89C2051, LCD display, Switch, RF module and a transistor which is used as a motor driver. When the vehicle arrives at the toll booth, the driver presses the switch and the RF module is used for the wireless communication between transmitter and receiver section. When the driver presses the switch the entire information of the vehicle such as vehicle number, chassis number etc. is automatically transmitted at the toll side. As discussed before, three parameters have been added in the system:
VEHICLE_1: When vehicle_1 is displayed on the LCD then it means the driver has sufficient balance in his system then a signal will be passed through RF module and the barricade will be opened and the vehicle will be allowed to pass through the toll.
VEHICLE_2: When vehicle_2 is displayed on the LCD then it means the driver has insufficient balance in his system then a signal will be passed through RF module that the driver has insufficient balance in his system and the barricade will remain closed and the vehicle will not be allowed to pass through the toll.
VEHICLE_3: When vehicle_3 is displayed on the LCD then it means that the vehicle is stolen vehicle and the vehicle will not be allowed to pass through the toll. The microcontroller will then send a message through GSM module to the nearest Police station.
V. RESULT & CONCLUSION
From a technological viewpoint, road pricing has proven its value in different system concepts; consolidation of technology has begun in detail. The positive effects of pricing clearly show up, the negative effects are much less than expected. If the conception of the pricing-application is well balanced and openly communicated, barriers and opposition in public as well as special lobbies are diminishing over time. ETC-applications with directly traffic-related fees are not yet in regular operation on a wider scale. A holistic view on the pricing solution is needed with respect to traffic effects, financial charge and use of fee-incomes. Electronic Toll Collection may become an increasing important instrument within the big bundle of measures for regional demand and traffic management. The implemented ETC based system significantly contribute to improve travel conditions by addressing delay caused by both recurring and nonrecurring congestion. People hate the delay at tollbooths. This system collects toll from the vehicles driving on toll roads without making the vehicle stop at Tollbooths. This has been accomplished by installing a wireless system in both vehicles and tollbooths to exchange toll related information using different data transfer techniques like via cable, infrared, Radio frequency, Bluetooth, etc.. These systems include benefits to both toll authorities and facility users, in terms of time and cost saving, improved security, increased capacity and greater convenience. This system provides a broad overview for collecting toll and thus provides advantage to toll operators and motorist.