BRAILLE READER
Volumn 3

BRAILLE READER

Bhawna Chawla (bhawnachawla741@gmail.com), Shikha Gupta (shikhagupta579@gmail.com), Ruchika Dalal (dalal.ruchika06@gmail.com), Saima Tarannum (saimatarannum3004@gmail.com), Khushboo Rajurkar (khushboorajurkar23@gmail.com)

Guided by Prof. Siddharth Basu

Department of Electronic and telecommunication, Jhulelal Institute Of Technology, Nagpur

ABSTRACT:  

The project aims to make a portable equipment which can be used by a (blind & dumb)/ (blind, deaf and dumb) person to communicate with other people. Something that can be used in the daily life of a person who cannot see, speak or hear”. So we ended up with this idea of a braille reader.

It has been suggested by the National Federation of the Blind that up to 90% of employed blind Americans use Braille regularly – yet less than 10% of blind school children can fluently read Braille. Developing robust usable and affordable Braille technology is an essential ingredient in reversing this decline.

Throughout 2014 and 2015 Bristol Braille Technology tested each Canute iteration with Braille readers across the UK and Ireland. Prototype units were loaned to blind people for use in their own homes. Feedback from Braille readers was collated and channelled in to the next iteration.

Develop Braille skills by arranging the alphabet over several lines to show the simple repeating pattern that underpins many Braille characters. Display Braille page layout with paragraphs, bulleted lists, headings and page numbers to reinforce formatting skills. Interpret tabulated data such as tables, calendars and spreadsheets. Develop math skills by showing arithmetic working, times tables, simultaneous equations and matrices. Read musical arrangements containing multiple voices.

I. INTRODUCTION:

The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write. Braille was devised in 1821 by Louis Braille, a blind Frenchman.

Each Braille character or cell is made up of six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle containing two columns of three dots each. Using the possible combinations of the six dots any character alphabets (lower or upper case), numbers, special characters) can be generated. a that is universally used by visually impaired for reading and writing. Traditilus and

Beginning with Braille: Firsthand Experiences with a Balanced Approach to Literacy, new from the American Foundation for the Blind, begins with a discussion of the whole language and traditional approaches to teaching reading and writing. Author Anna M. Swenson is a Braille teacher who favours the whole language philosophy, but who has taught in various settings, and includes ideas and techniques that will work with the traditional approach as well. The books focus is on creating an atmosphere that promotes literacy, no matter what the teaching approach.

According to Swenson, Braille teachers, who are the books primary intended audience, are not only teaching the Braille code, but are also teaching reading and writing. Swenson encourages Braille teachers to keep up to date with current approaches to teaching language arts, to get samples of sighted Persons work in order to understand the level of classroom expectation, and to consult with the reading specialist orlearning disabilities specialist in the school if the blind Person seems to be having difficulty learning to read.

Swenson makes detailed suggestions regarding working out the technical aspects of teaching Braille to a Person in the mainstream, especially in a whole language classroom. In the section A Morning in the Mainstream, the reader can get a vivid view of how the Braille teacher can work alongside the classroom teacher to ensure a solid foundation for the blind Person.

Swenson lists techniques and activities for teaching Braille within and outside the regular classroom. This information ends up highlighting the pros and cons of mainstreaming and the delicate balance between the expectations of the mainstream classroom and the need for individual instruction in Braille skills, especially for the youngest Persons. Swenson observes that some Persons need extra individual instruction to prepare them to participate fully in the mainstream classroom. She warns that insisting on full‑time mainstreaming in the beginning for Persons such as these may result in less mainstreaming later on. Swenson also reminds teachers, though, that the goal of the specialized instruction is for the Person to be able to function in the mainstream.

The author of this book certainly loves her work. Her genuine enthusiasm is apparent on every page. By reading the case studies she includes, we can share in the excitement of seeing a Person progress. Anna Swensons Persons are surely having fun and learning well. Now others have the opportunity to benefit from this teachers creative work.

II. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION:

A. At mega 16

Features:

  • High-Performance ,Low Power 8-bit Micro-Controller.
  • 131 Powerful Instructions.
  • 32×8 General Purpose Working Registers.
  • Flash Memory of 16kb.
  • 512 Bytes of EEPROM.
  • 1K Bytes of  SRAM.
  • JTAG  Interface.
  • Inbuilt  ADC (Analog to Digital Converter).
  • Inbuilt  USART.

On-chip  Programming.

Peripheral Features– Two 8-bit Timer/Counters, One 16-bit Timer/Counter, 8-channel, 10-bit ADC.

B. Vibrators:

Using coin vibrators. This seemed to be a technically feasible idea but we were unable to obtain the vibrators.

So we finally settled on using mobile phone vibrators. The blind person would now receive the signal using a 3×2 matrix of mobile phone vibrators.

It is used in variety of application for receiving the signals without vibration. This motor is manufactured by following the guidance of the experts using high quality materials. Vibrator Motor is tested on the standard quality norms prior to the delivery. It is available in the market at a feasible price.

Features:

  • Light weight
  • Energy efficient
  • Noise less operation

 C. LCD Display:

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16×2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.

A 16×2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5×7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data.

The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.

III. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION AND DESCRIPTION:

The circuit diagram of the entire system. Various Parameters are taken such as Temperature, Humidity; Light will sense gives a voltage output corresponding to values. This signal is taken into LPC2148 processor through the analog input channel for comparison. This signal is digitized using the inbuilt 10-bit ADC of the LPC2148 processor and compare the data with Predefined data for any status changes or value crossing the limit. Then System will send the message to concerned authority(s) by sending an SMS through GSM MODEM to his/her Mobile phone and Then authorized person sends message to the system then microcontroller switches the ON/OFF. 

The authority(s) can also monitor the status of the Controlled Devices. The measured values are displayed in personal computer for further analysis of graphs.

IV. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT :

The software for the system is developed in Embedded C and Visual Basic. The flowcharts depicting the measurement and the control of Green house. The flowcharts depicting the measurement.

V. CONCLUSION:

The project can be said to be a success. But still there are many features which can be added to this project to enhance the applicability of the product we are trying to make.

From this project we conclude that our objective of achieving the costumer’s requirement has been executed successfully.

Also we understood the basic concepts of water-treatment system, as well as the concepts of PLC & SCADA were cleared.

REFERENCES:

  • Microcontroller Atmega-16 Data Sheet.
  • Max 232 Data Sheet
  • Power Supply (From Various Websites), etc
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braille
  • www.omniglot.com/writing/braille.htm
  • https://nfb.org/Images/nfb/Publications/fr/fr19/Issue1/f190111.htm
  • Max Embedded.com

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