Volumn 3


Ms.J.C.Kolte, Ms.A.V.Nandeshwar, Ms.P.A.Mohitkar, Ms.P.R.Nasre , ,


In greenhouse we planting the plants for various purpose such as for growing vegetables, Fruits and for the commercial used and for the research. In many greenhouse systems still use the manual system in monitoring the temperature and moisture in the greenhouse, a lot of problems can occur not for worker but also affected production rate because the temperature and moisture of the greenhouse must be constantly monitored to obtained optimal conditions.

 It is very difficult to monitoring  all the time environment  of the greenhouse for the we made  this project by using this  we can controlling and monitoring the parameters i.e moisture , temperature , light intensity by Controlling this parameters using sensors like moisture sensor, LDR(light dependent resistor), thermistor .

Keywords— sensors, micro-controller, LDR

1. Introduction:

Greenhouse is used to growing the various plants for commercial as well as research purpose. In many way we can controlling greenhouse. Since if we not properly controlled the environment of the greenhouse may crops or plant may damage or its may occur the diseases on plants. Basically the main parameter of the greenhouse environment is moisture, temperature and light intensity. This parameter is essential for the greenhouse environment, so by observing that we try to controlling and monitoring this parameter by using our project in which we used the sensor for that parameter. Sensors are used basically for giving the input by using these we monitoring this all the parameter on LCD display (liquid crystal display). We are used roof shed for protecting plants from UV rays or high light intensity by using light sensor. We also used 4*4 matrix for the selecting plants in different lines and for the manual operation. There are some predefined value is for all the parameter which is controlled by the micro controller i.e. main unit of the device. Microcontroller is used to control all the circuit of the device in which microcontroller act as CPU of the device.

2. Literature survey

The current generation is surviving in the world of automation where everything can be controlled and operated automatically, but there are still a few important sectors in our countrywhere automation has not been adopted or not been put to a full-fledged use, perhaps because of several reasons one such reason is cost. Agriculture is one of the fields where automation is yet to be implemented completely. It has been one of the primary occupations of society since earlier civilizations and even today it is a primary occupation. Furthermore in the 13th century, the concept of Green house has been introduced in the agricultural industry to full fill the market requirements.  It was originally called asgiardini botanici (botanical gardens). Green house forms an important part of an agriculture sector in our country as it can be used to grow the crops under controlled climate conditions for optimum and efficient production.

I. Previous scenario of Indian agriculture

The flash back of Indian agricultural history is seen, the agenda of production was totally different. The overall agricultural processes were totally manually dependent. No automation was introduced in the historic years of agriculture. All the crops and productions in the agricultural industry were dependent on manual efforts. So, because of the human errors and other default problems, the production was affected somewhere. After 13th century Greenhouse concept had come to existence. And the journey of progress in the field of agriculture started. 

II. Current scenario with market expectations

Further, after the introduction of Greenhouse, the production of crops increased to some better level. Also, some new innovative techniques had been implemented to grow up the environment and production of crops. Gradually with the increase in global population, the expectations and requirements of the market have increased to greater level. So, in order to overcome this problem, different machineries have arrived in the industry with various advanced techniques. Even though, the sector was not totally automated that time and now also it is not automated totally. So, this paper trying to introduce automation in the agricultural sector, specially focusing towards automation in Greenhouses. 

III. Why to use Automation

Larger area of chart is covered by drip irrigation followed by sprinkler, water pump irrigation and canal irrigation methods. Remaining portion is covered with other small irrigation method used situation-wise. In all, the conclusion can be done that, if all the above methods of irrigation are made automated, the result of automation will be leading over the market expectations.

3. Block diagram:

4. Description of the system:

I. Sensors:

A sensor is a miniature component which measure physical parameters from the environment. Sensors measure the physical parameters and transmit them either by wired or wireless medium. In wireless medium the sensor and its associated components are called as node. A node is self-possessed by a processor, local memory, sensors, radio, battery and a base station responsible for receiving and processing data collected by the nodes. They carry out joint activities due to limited resources such as battery, processor and memory. Nowadays, the applications of these networks are numerous, varied and the applications in agriculture are still budding. One interesting application is in environmental monitoring and greenhouse control, where the crop conditions such as climate and soil do not depend on natural agents. To control and monitor the environmental factors, sensors and actuators are necessary. There are many types of sensors are available i.e, Acoustic sensor, automotive sensor, chemical sensor, radio sensor, fluid sensor, position sensor, optical sensor, pressure sensor, force sensor, thermal or temperature  sensor, but in this system, we can used three sensors. that is, moisture sensor, temperature sensor, light sensor.

II. Moisture sensor:

 There are two sensors used first is surface sensor means sensor which is placed at the surface or at the level of the soil and other is deep sensor which is placed at the deep of the soil. These sensor sense the moisture and it will send to micro controller which compare the threshold values and gives the indication on LCD display.

III. Temperature sensor:

Temperature sensor (thermistor) it is used to sense the temperature of the greenhouse. A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistor.

Thermistor can be classified into two type –

  • The resistance increases with increasing temperature, and the device is called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor.
  • The resistance decreases with increasing temperature and the device is called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. In our project we use NTC as temperature sensor

 Temperature sensor sense the temperature and it also send the valve to the micro-controller to compare with the threshold value.

IV. Light sensor:

A light dependent resistor (LDR) is a device whose resistivity is a function of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Hence, it is light sensitive device. LDR are light dependent device whose resistance is decreased when light falls on them and that is increase in the dark, its resistance is very high.

Light sensor which is LDR(light dependent resistor ) are sense the light intensity and the reading send to the micro controller and   it display to the LCD .For example if the light intensity of the sunlight is high then automatically the roof of shed cover the greenhouse.

V. Microcontroller:

The micro controller is the heart of the system .In our project we are using the micro controller the family of 8051 i.e P89V51RD2 is used. The P89V51RD2 is a 80c51 microcontroller with 64KB flash and 1024 bytes of data RAM.A key feature of the PV89V51RD2 is its X2 mode option. It constantly monitors  the  digitized  parameters  of  the  various  sensors  and  verifies  them  with  the predefined  threshold  values. It checks if any corrective action is to be taken for the condition at that instant of time. In case such a situation arises, it activates the actuators to perform controlled operation.

VI. Relays:

A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low power signal or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.  

In our project we are connected the component like exhaust fan, solenoid valve and light with the help of relay we switch on –off that all the components.

VII. DC motor:

DC motor is any of a electrical machines that converts direct current electrical power into mechanical power. The most common type rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motor have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor.

We are going to use two 12 volt DC motors. First DC motor will be used for sliding roof shed. Second DC motor will be for the pulling the water from the well.

VIII. PC Interfacing:

The MAX232 is used to exchange the TTL/CMOS logic RS232 logic levels through the serial communication of microcontroller with the personal computer. The MAX232 can convert the signals like RX,TX, CTS, and RTS and it is a dual driver/ receiver. It Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.0-pF Charge-Pump Capacitors .It Operates Up To 120 kbit/s Two Drivers and Two Receivers. Typical ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 − 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)

We are going to use max 232 IC for pc interfacing, the values of temperature, moisture and light will be sent to pc when the key is pressed.

IX. Solenoid valve:

A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid, in the of a two port valve the flow is switched ON or OFF; in the case of a three port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valve can be placed together on a manifold. Solenoid valve are the most frequently used control element in fluidics. It is used to allow the flow of water. That mean which is used to control flow of water from the DC pump.

X. Keyboard:

The matrices are actually an interface technique. It can be used to interface inputs like the PC keyboard keys, but also to control multiple output like LED’s. According to this technique, the I/O are divided into two section: the columns and the row.

In this 4*4 matrix keyboard is used as input in a project. It has 16 keys in total which means the same input values.  It is used for the giving the input to the micro controller. In our project we used this 4*4 matrix for selecting the rows of plant.   

XI. LCD Display:

A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. In this we used 16*2 LCD display to display the reading of the sensors.

XII. Driver IC:

Since at the circuit we gives the power supply 5 since it is not possible to operate other device like solenoid valve exhaust fan and other device for that purpose we are use relay deriver IC i.e ULN2003 . These IC are useful for driving a wide range of loads including solenoid valve, relay, dc motors and LCD display.

5.Circuit diagram:

6. Predefined values:


  Tolerance= ± 0.2 V at 270C 


Tolerance = ±0.1V  


  Temperature (0C) = (Vout /5) *100   (0C /V)

7. Software user:

I. Multisim software:

 Multisim software is used for the circuit designing. It is an electronic schematic capture and simulation program which is part of a suite of circuit design programs, along with NI ultiboard. Multisim is one of the few circuit design program to employ he originally Berkeley spice based software simulation. Multisim was originally called electronic workbench and created by a company called interactive image technologies.

II.ORCAD software:

OrCAD PCB designer is a printed circuit board designer application, part of the orCAD circuit design suite. PCB designer include various automation features for PCB design, board-level analysis and design rule checks. The PCB design may be accomplished by manually tracking PCB track, or using the auto-router provided. Such designs may include curved PCB tracks, geometric shape and ground planes. PCB designer integrates with orCAD capture using the component information system to store information about a certain circuit symbol and its matching PCB footprint. It is used for the PCB designing.

III. Keil Software:

Keil Micro Vision is an integrated development environment used to create software to be run on embedded systems (like a microcontroller). It allows for such software to be written either in assembly or C programming languages and for that software to be simulated on a computer before being loaded onto the microcontroller.

Device Database: A unique feature of the Keil μVision3 IDE is the Device Database, which contains information about more than 400 supported microcontrollers.


It is a software which is used for dumping the program into the microcontroller.

7. Result analysis:

8. Conclusion:

The low cost greenhouse monitoring and controlling was successfully developed. This will reduce the time of using the manual way of watering. Fewer workers are needed to maintain the plants or crops. The sensors such as temperature sensor (Thermistor) and soil moisture probe are used to control the temperature and watering in the greenhouse. The  system  has  successfully  overcome  quite a  few  shortcomings  of  the  existing systems by reducing the power consumption, maintenance and complexity, at a reduced cost and at the same time providing a flexible and precise form of maintaining the environment.  


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