Classroom Automation and RFID Based Classroom Attendance
Volumn 3

Classroom Automation and RFID Based Classroom Attendance

Rasika Sayre, Priyanka Gher, Prajkta Raut, Ashwini Giri, Priyanka Dule,Prof.  Mayuri Chawla

Department of Electronic and communication, Jhulelal Institute Of Technology, Nagpur

ABSTRACT:

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology field has made medium of information retrieval more advanced and complex. As the RFID has gained a lot of attention nowadays, the use of RFlDin a wide range application has been successfully developed. Thus, this paper describes a brief introduction to application of attendance system and reviews some application of attendance system and techniques of data retrieval such as smart card, biometrics, barcode and RFID itself. This ongoing research would be applicable in collecting student attendance in classroom using active RFID technology.

I. INTRODUCTION

The  two  major  problems  faced  by  organizations  are  time  consuming  manual   Attendance  and  wastage  of  electrical  power. Our  project  is  going  to  solve these Problems  by  using  RFID  technology.  Radio  Frequency  Identification (RFID) is an automatic  identification  method, relying  on  storing  and  remotely  retrieving data

using  devices  called  RFID  tags  or  transponders. So  the  RFID  is  a  wireless identification.  Normally  the  RFID  system comprises  of  two  main  parts  are RFID Reader  and  RFID Tag.Radio  Frequency  Identification (RFID)  is  one  of  the  automatic  identification Technologies  more  in  vogue  nowadays. There  is  a  wide  research  and development in This  area  trying  to  take  maximum  advantage  of  this  technology, and  in coming  years many  new  applications  and  research  areas  will  continue  to  appear. This sudden interest  in  RFID  also  brings  about  some  concerns, mainly  the  security  and privacy of those  who  work  with  or  use  tags  in  their  everyday  life.

In a developing country like ours, lot of latest technology that has been developed such as RFID, wireless, Bluetooth, robot and so on. Therefore, these technologies can be adopted to improve our daily routines so take our life more comfortable and easy. All universities should try adopting these technologies to improve their quality of student and management. Besides not being left behind in latest development, it will produce more quality and discipline graduates and they know to use advanced technology in the future. Attendance taking in universities should be done in more advanced method with using the latest technology. The attendance system was developed to help lecturers to manage student attendance in more effective method. As for system development and implementation, it should be able to help the lecturers to managing their student attendance systematically. The system must have database that contains student information and it must be able to help lecturer to manipulate data, update database, alert lecturers accordingly, and also nice interface to make it easier to use. Finally, the attendance system must be user friendly for commercial purpose. This thesis will focus on UMP regulation about attendance to class, and implement it to develop the system that will do all the attendance management automatically by using RFID technology

II. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION

ARDUINO BOARD

Overview

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.

Revision 2 of the Uno board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode.

Revision 3 of the board has the following new features:

1.0 pinout: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible both with the board that use the AVR, which operate with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operate with 3.3V. The second one is a not connected pin, that is reserved for future purposes.

  • Stronger RESET circuit.
  • Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2.

“Uno” means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino, moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for a comparison with previous versions, see the index of Arduino boards.

Summary

  • Microcontroller ATmega328
  • Operating Voltage 5V
  • Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V

Comparator IC LM358                                   

  • Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package, (See AN-1112)
  • Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
  • Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB
  • Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated)
  • Wide power supply range:

— Single supply: 3V to 32V

Features

  • Two internally compensated op amps
  • Eliminates need for dual supplies
  • Allows direct sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND
  • Compatible with all forms of logic
  • Power drain suitable for battery operation

Radio frequency identification (RFID)

RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification, which is a wireless communication technology that is used to uniquely identify tagged objects or people .RFID systems have been widely used in many application areas, such as inventory control, product tracking through manufacturing and assembly, parking lot access and control, container or pallet tracking, ID badges and access control, equipment or personnel tracking in hospitals, etc.

RFID systems use radio waves to transmit information from an integrated circuit tag through a wireless communication to a host computer . These systems consist of three components that are the tag (transponder), the reader (interrogator) and the host computer (controller). The reader communicates with the tags in its wireless range and collects information about the objects to which tags are attached .Compared to other automatic identification technologies, like optical barcode systems, RFID has several advantages, such as tag data can be read automatically without line of sight, thought some materials, simultaneously tag reading and from a range of several meters. RFID has the following main components and figure 2.1 was shows the basic components of RFID systems and concepts.

  • RFID Tag / Transponder
  • RFID Reader
  • RFID Antenna
  • PC /Database

III. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION AND DESCRIPTION

LED

Light emitting diode are used in application as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting,automotive lighting as well as in traffic signals. The compact size, the possibility of narrow bandwidth, switching speed and extreme reliability of LED’s have allowed new text and  video  display and sensor to be develop, while their high switching rates  are also useful in advance  communication technology.

LCD(liquid crystal display)

Is the technology used for displays in the notebook and other smaller computers. Like light-emitting diode (LED) and gas-plasma technologies, LCDs allow displays to be much thinner than cathode ray tube (CRT) technology.”

LCDs consumes  much less power than LED and gas display displays because they work on the principal of blocking light rather than emitting it.

An LCD is made  with either a passive matrix or an active matrix display displays grid. The active matrix LCD is also know as a thin film transistor (TFT) display. The passive matrix LCD as a grid of conductor  with pixels located at each intersection in the grid. A current is sent across two a conductor on the grid to control the light for any pixel. An active matrix has a transistor located at each pixel intersection, requiring less current to control the luminance of pixel for this reason, the current in an active matrix display can be switch on an and off  more frequently, improving the screen refresh time.

Some passive LCD’s have dual scanning meaning that they scan the grid twice with current in the original technology. However, active matrix is still a superior technology.

RFID MODULE EM-18

The reader is the most fundamental part of the RFID system. It reads raw data from the tag and transmits it to the Middleware for further processing . The reader attempts to interrogate the tags at varying frequencies. The reader communicates by transmitting a beam of impulses, which encapsulate commands to the tag and listens for the tag’s response . The reader also contains built in anti-collision processes, which allows the reader to read multiple tags simultaneously . The reader is connected to the computer for data processing via a USB cable or over a wireless connection.

 IV. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

 The software for the system is developed in Arduino Board                               

Figure 3.  flowcharts

V. CONCLUSION

 By knowing the problems and requirements required by the organization, a system was successfully developed. Development of the system will be based on problems be addressed and which can meet the needs of the organization. Apart from the analysis of problems and research needs, objectives and scope project was set to give a preliminary and a more functional clearly to ensure the smooth running of the system has been developed. However, the development of more effective systems should be based on objectives and scope of the project was determined. Overall, this chapter was describing the early stages carried out before a more thorough study is done to develop this system. This chapter also discussed the information should be recorded and the process flow for the development of systems to be built.

REFERENCES

  1. Ken Wieland, “Spreading the Word” Telecommunications Magazine International Edition October 2004, Issue Highlights.By Scott McLeod,
    By Allan Jones, ―Should RFID Be Used to Monitor Students?‖, ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education), November 2006.
  2. Sae Sol Choi, Mun Kee Choi, Won Jay Song, Sang H. Son, ―Ubiquitous RFID Healthcare Systems Analysis on PhysioNet Grid Portal Services Using Petri Nets”, IEEE ICICS,pp.1255, 2005.
  3. Taimur Hassan, Samir Chatterjee, ―A Taxonomy for RFID‖, Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE, pp.1, 2006.
  4. M. K. Yeop Sabri, M. Z. A. Abdul Aziz, M. S. R. Mohd Shah, M. F. Abd Kadir , ―Smart Attendance System by Using RFID‖, Asia Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetic Proceeding, Malaysia, IEEE, 2007.
  5. L. Sandip, “RFID Sourcebook”, IBM Press, USA, (2005) ISBN: 0 -13- 185137-3.
  6. E. Zeisel & R. Sabella, “RFID+”, Exam Cram, (2006), ISBN: 0 -7897- 3504-0.
  7. US. Department of Homeland Security, “Additional Guidence and Security Controls are needed over Systems using RFID and DHS”, Department of Homeland Security (Office of Inspector General), (2006), OIG-06-53.
  8. US. Department of Homeland Security, “Enhanced Security Controls needed for US-Visit’s System using RFID Technology”, Department of Homeland Security (Office of Inspector General), (2006), OIG-06-39.
  9. US. Government Accountability Office, “Information Security: Radio Frequency Identification Technology in the Federal Government”, (2005), Report to Congressional Requesters, GAO-05-551.
  10. K. Ahsan, H. Shah, P. Kingston, “Role of Enterprise Architecture in healthcare IT”, Proceeding ITNG2009, (2009), IEEE.
  11. Intermec, “ABCs of RFID: Understanding and using radio frequency identification”, White Paper, (2009).

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