Urvashi Bokade1, Sharayu Karwade2, Snehal Rewatkar3, Shriya Dhanjode4
1,2,3,4Department of Electronics and Telecommunication,
S. B. Jain Institute of Technology, Management and Research, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
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This paper provides us the study of design and simulation of Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) using NS-2 (Network Simulator Version 2). MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without any centralized administration. Each node or mobile devices can move freely and independently in the network. Each device in a MANET acts as router that means if the data is of no use to any particular node then that node will forward this data to other nodes in the network. NS-2 is a simulation tool which simulates the behavior of computer networks and also it is an event driven simulator. For viewing real world packet traces and network simulation traces one tool is used that is Network Animator (NAM) which is TCL based animation tool. The routing of packets from source node to destination node is carried out with the help of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. A simulation consisting of 20 mobile nodes and calculation of throughput and Packet Loss Ratio (PLR) is shown.
MANET overview :- MANET is a network which is autonomous and dynamic network including number of mobile hosts. The mobile nodes are located in such a way that interconnection between these nodes changes continuously. The data transfer or transfer of packets between the mobile nodes takes place either in single hop or multi-hop using intermediate nodes. Also, there is no need of fixed infrastructure to support network configuration and reconfiguration as it is called as self-configuring network. Each node in a network acts as source node, sink node and router in order to connect all the nodes. To keep the network fully connected packets must be transferred from any particular node to other nodes. Application areas of MANETs are military communication, disaster relief , personal area network (PAN), etc.
DSR overview:- Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a routing protocol which uses source routing instead of routing table. All the routing information is continuously updated at mobile nodes. DSR works on two major phases Route Maintenance and Route Discovery.
In this project we are going to design and simulate a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) of 20 nodes.
At first we set values of parameters that are to be used in program. The program is design by studying a TCL script i.e. Tool Command Language in ns2. The functions are like medium, propagation way, type of antenna etc. After that we created three trace files, first one is for traffic, second one is for graphic representation and the last is for output. Now we generated topology. Here the main node is GOD i.e. general operational directory which is used to carry information of all the nodes and used to calculate shortest routing path with small number of hops. It has highest priority among all the nodes. At the starting of simulation it sends a message to all nodes and nodes sends acknowledgment to it by this it gets all the information about the nodes present in the network. In this we used wireless nodes so we have to give some predefined command which are necessary for execution. Then we created nodes using ‘for’ loop. In this we used two ‘for’ loops, first one is for generation of node and second one is for fixing their position within the dimension which are defined earlier. Now the main part is to generate traffic as the nodes are not stationary we decided to demonstrate it between any two nodes among twenty. Thus we choose node 2 and node 8, where node 2 is agent that is transmitter and node 8 is sink node that is receiver. For the routing of packets Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol is used. For the packet generation we used File Transfer Protocol(FTP) which works on application layer. Packets are generated and thus flow of traffic is as shown below. The calculation of throughput is done by using formula given below:
Throughput : (Number of packets successfully delivered – Drop packets) /Total number of packets