MAN ANIMAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN BUFFER ZONES
Volumn 2

MAN ANIMAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN BUFFER ZONES

Ravina.Jambhulkar#1                                                                            

#MTECH Scholar & ETC department RTMNU                                    

JHUELAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY-Lonara Nagpur

1sweety.jambhulkar0@gmail.com

Abstract—

In India, man-animal conflict is seen across the country in a variety of forms, including monkey menace in the urban areas, crop raiding by ungulates and wild pigs, depredation by elephants, and cattle and human killing by tigers and leopards. Damage to agricultural and property, killing of livestock and human beings are some of the worst forms of man-animal conflict.The increase in man-animal conflict is likely due to the greater resilience and adaptability of wild animals in face of their shrinking habitats, which allow them to live successfully close to human habitation.Degradation of habitats, depletion of the natural prey base, changing crop patterns, suitability of man modified habitats to wild animals, presence of stray dogs and cattle in forest fringe areas etc are other reasons. Crops like sugarcane and tea estates are reported to provide excellent cover for wild animals.As per Elephant Census held in 2007-08, estimated population of Elephant in India is 27669-27719 (Mid value 27694).The Government in India, wild elephants probably kills far more people than tiger, leopard or lion. But, surprisingly, human conflict involving leopard draws great amount of public attention compared to other animals.

Keywords—GSM,RFID,P89V51RD2,Microcontroller, 2*16 LCD display, Flash Magic.

1. INTRODUCTION

Before starting with our project, we need to understand all the basic concepts. First we need to know what a system is. A system is a way of working, organizing or doing one or many tasks according to a fixed plan, program or set of rules. Simple examples of system are: watches, hand driers, washing machines, etc.Embedded system is one that has computer hardware with software embedded in it as one of the important components. The basic components of embedded systems are Hardware, Main application software, Real time operating system (RTOS).Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. Wireless operations permit services, such as long-range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio waves, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

Various forms of human Human–wildlife conflict refer to the interaction between wild animals and people and the resultant negative impact on people or their resources, or wild animals or their habitat. It occurs when growing human populations overlap with established wildlife territory, creating reduction of resources or life to some people and/or wild animals.As human population extends to wild animal habitats, natural wildlife territory is displaced. The population .Density of wildlife and humans overlaps increasing their interaction thus resulting in increased physical conflict. Byproducts of human existence offer un-natural opportunity for wildlife in the form of food and shelter, resulting in increased interference and potentially destructive threat for both man and animals.But protecting wildlife does not mean allowing human deaths. Hence we are proposing an adhoc network based system which will avoid this conflict to larger extent and allow wildlife and humans to flourish in close vicinity of each other. The system proposes towers all round the village. And animals like tigers with radio collar.Whenever any wild animal approach the village, the system identifies the animal and its direction of approach. The system sounds alarm in village the system also sends immediate message to forest department and informs about possible threat. The towers can also gather vital data about health of the animal and relay it to forest department for further analysis. This data will help in maintaining the health of all animals and eco system.

Fig1: Leopard attacking forest official during his rescue

2. STANDARD ESTABLISHED TECHNIQUES

An Automated Animal Tracking system (AATS) has been deployed at the Starkey Experimental Forest near La Grande, Oregon. AATS provides position data on elk, deer and cattle using paged transmitting animal collars retransmitting 12 second bursts of Loran-C signals.

Conventional animal telemetry and collar systems are available from several manufacturers. With these systems researchers take bearings and/or signal strength readings to locate a collar. Bearing accuracy is limited, requiring researchers to move closer and closer to the target animal to improve position accuracy. Multipath can increase bearing errors further degrading system performance. Conventional telemetry may require more than pen researcher and many hours to locate a single animal. If position coordinates are required after the animal is located, the researcher must provide them.Many dedicated area systems are available; several, including Loran-C mini-chains and 2-MHz systems, could provide positioning at Starkey. All require large investments in transmitters and control systems. The need for long battery life because of  the difficulty of trapping animals made many conventional receivers inappropriate.Telemetry Solutions, based in California, is a leading electronics design and manufacturing company specializing in miniaturization and low-power-consumption GPS for wildlife research and management.

3. SURVEY OF CURRENT TRENDS

Existing wildlife products are: remote download GPS collars for small to large mammals, solar powered GPS for birds, reptiles and mammals. For species such as GPS for seabirds, shorebirds, land birds and bats and GPS pods that instantly convert VHF into GPS collars for wildlife.

Examples:- G2110E — Iridium/GPS Location Collar.Get your animal’s data anywhere you get your e-mail.Iridium Collar is part of ATS’s Next gen line of new, more capable GPS Loggers and Collars. The model G2110E uses the private sector Iridium satellite to send stored location data collected by the collar’s on-board GPS receiver chipset. An integrated VHF transmitter allows you to track the animal in the field and a collar release mechanism allows for reuse of the collar after retrieval.Location data stored in the collar’s non-volatile memory is sent periodically to the Iridium satellite where it is down- linked to Iridium Corporation’s ground based reception and processing center, hence sent via the web to ATS’s Hosting Computer. The data is then automatically emailed to you according to the schedule you chose. A data file compatible with Google Earth is also included. A nominal monthly subscription fee as well as a per-location fee will be invoiced to you on a quarterly basis.You can easily program the G2110E collar using the supplied Windows-based software. You can control how often fixes are collected and stored, how often emails are sent to you (up to six per day, each holding up to 22 locations), and how often the VHF beacon will transmit (this allows you to maximize battery life).

4. BLOCK DIAGRAM

4.1Transmitter section

Fig 2: Block diagram of transmitter section

The transmitter section consists of an astable multivibrator, RF encoder and a RF transmitter module. The astable multivibrator continuously emits pulses of a particular frequency. The RF encoder encodes the particular frequency and gives it to the transmitting module which further transmits the pulse or the signal using the antenna.

4.2 Receiver section

fig 3:Block diagram of receiver section

The receiver section consists of RF receiver module, RF Decoder, Microcontroller, Buzzer or Hooter, LCD display and GSM Module. The Receiver module receives the signal transmitted by the transmitting antenna and gives to the decoder which further gives it to the microcontroller. The controller performs three way functions by giving the signal to LCD, Hooter and to GSM Module.

5.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER AND RECIEVER

5.1Transmitter section

Fig 4: Circuit diagram of transmitter section

The transmitter consists of a power supply section which further consists of DC Jack, Single Pole Single through Switch, 1000uf capacitor which is used to eliminate the spikes in DC current. 470uf capacitor is used to eliminate the static electricity. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC 7805 maintains the output voltage at a constant value here it maintains the voltage at 5 volts value. Astable multivibrator IC LM 555 continuously emits pulses of a particular frequency. Pin Q of astable is connected to the Transmission Enable (TE) pin of HT12E which converts the parallel inputs into serial output. When a trigger signal is received on TE pin, the programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium. HT12E begins a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable. This cycle is repeated as long as TE is kept low. As soon as TE returns to high, the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops. The encoded signal is transmitted through the Transmitter module via antenna circuit.In this way the Transmitter circuitry operates.

5.2 Receiver section

Fig 5: Circuit diagram of  receiver section

The receiver circuit consists of receiver module which directs the signal to RF decoder which converts the serial input into parallel outputs. It decodes the serial addresses and data received by, say, an RF receiver, into parallel data and sends them to output data pins. A valid transmission in indicated by a high signal at VT pin. Decoder output is given to the port 0 pin of microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to display the required output. The LCD is connected on port 2. LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data registersMotor driver circuit L293D is connected via driver circuit. L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. Enable pins 1 and 9 must be high for motors to start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state. Port 3 of microcontroller is connected to the GSM module via MAX 232 cable. The MAX232 IC is used to convert the TTL/CMOS logic levels to RS232 logic levels during serial communication of microcontrollers with PC. The controller operates at TTL logic level (0-5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works on RS232 standards (-25 V to + 25V).

6. RESULT & CONCLUSION

The project has been implemented for safety of human beings and animals. The system to be designed is based on the fact that in buffer zones, it is very difficult for a person to monitor the incoming threat. If not, there occurs damage in the vegetation as well as the colonies present nearby the sanctuaries. Therefore by implementing this project we make sure that animal life, vegetation as well as human lives are preserved and protected to a large extent .Moreover this project can have many applications in other sectors too where we can modify the project according to the situation. The main advantage of the project is to conserve the wildlife as well as the human life.The system will provide 24 X 7 round the clock service and report any approaching threat. Monitoring conflict will help US to pinpoint where the worst conflict occurs. This information will help to direct the deterrent efforts where they are most needed.

The project can be implemented on both small scale and large scale.

References

  1. Berkmüller K. and Mukherjee, S., 1989, Buffer zones in the service of eco-development. Tiger Paper Vol. XVI; no. 3
  2. Blom, E., Perspectives for ETC in Buffer Zone Management Projects, ETC Leusden, October 1998 Borrini-
  3. Feyerabend G., Collaborative management of protected areas: tailoring the approach to the context, IUCN, September
  4. 1996 – Presentation at the Seminar of Co-management in the forest context, IAC, September 1998 Callan & Thomas,
  5. Environmental economics and management, IRWIN, Chicago, 1996 Conway, Gordon R., 1986, Agrosystem
  6. Analysis for Research and Development CunninghamA.B,1996, People, park and plant use
  7. Recommendations for multiple-use zones and development alternatives around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park,
  8. Uganda. People and plants working paper 4 Ebregt, 1995, Tropical Rainforest and Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana.

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