#MTECH Scholar & ETC department RTMNU
JHUELAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY-Lonara Nagpur
This paper describes the design of the intelligent train Engine. These types of engine have capacity to control the train speed in different steps. It is based on the smart timer IC555, we add a kind of intelligence to the train engines itself,so that it tries to avoid the accidents.This research demonstrate how signaling in Indian Railway can be improved in order to avoid accidents that occur due to human error.We can provide all the trains with automated security system that provides high security to driver,and also take decision on its own.
Keywords- Timer IC555, RF Transceiver, IR Sensor, Microcontroller, DC Motor.
The aim of this reserch is to develop a prototype which on observing a red signal on track will start decresing its speed gradually and stop automatically at some distance from the signal pole.When the green signal is activated the driver can manually start the train and go.In the mean time when the train has stopped yet and the red signal turn green then it crosses the signal pole inwith low speed.Here in this research we have used IR transmitter and receiver instea of RF for demo purpose.But same idea can be easily implemented with RF also with a little more cost.Subsequently hardware configuration of microcontroller ,algoritm,flowchart etc is discussed.
We know that the railway network of India is the biggest in south Asia and perhaps the most complicated in all over theworld. There are so many different types of train local, fast, superfast, passenger, good.etc and their so many multiple routs. Although the time table is perfect it is not at all possible to maintain it and that’s why the train accidents are
becoming more and more usual. So why not we add a kind to intelligence to the train engines itself so that is tries to avoid accidents. Both the transmitter and receiver are of RF type with minimum range of 2 km so that train can get enough time to decrease its speed and stop before the signal pole with minimum swapping distance of 100-200m.In the last 10 year on Indian Railway,62% of the accident have been caused due to failure of Railway staff,failure of equipment has contributed 8%,and sabotage has contributed 3% and balance 5% have been contributed by miscellaneous reasons.From the breakup,it is more than evident that human the error from Railway staff has been the major factor in causing the accident on Indian Railway.
The train engine runs on 24 volt DC motor so that we can easily vary its speed by varying applied voltage. The switching voltage is applied in step of 18V, 15V, 12V, and 9V (minimum speed). The 230 VAC is step down to 24 VAC by 12-0-12, 2 ampere step down transformer. As shown in fig. this 24 DAC line runs parallel with track at the top of the train. Movable tapping are taken from this line and fed to the internal circuit of engine, senses the signals transmitted by IR
transmitter attached to signal pole. Train track is straight and 20 ft long. Signal pole is placed at the end of track and train starts from farther end. Figure shows model of demostrated train engine.
Nowadays public is facing many threats from the railway department by which they are hesitating to plan a train journey. The main reason for this is due to the accidents that occur due to negligence of train drivers. Though the railway department is trying to take actions to reduce such informal things but couldn’t see the face of success. To help out the department, we have designed our system.
This project is introduced to monitor the driver’s condition and also to control the gate when the train is about to cross the gate. The main functionality of this system is to monitor the driver’s action for sometime and if he fails to do any defined action within a specific period, the controller alerts the siren. If the driver did not switch off the buzzer and did not perform any task even after the activation of the buzzer, the controller immediately stops the train. Here the driver’s actions can be defined as blowing the horn or applying brake or accelerating the train etc. If the driver fails to do any of the above actions within the defined duration, the system gives a siren which the driver should switch off within the defined time, if failed the train will stop immediately.
Higher incidence of human failures surface as technical safeguard and backups do not always replace the human effort. Though an accident occurs only when both fail but it usually gets logged as human error with a tendency of glossing over technical failure. Under optimum field conditions and with the best of intentions, a human being is likely to commit a mistake from time to time. This is the reason why operating rules included many redundancies in safety procedures and operating practices involve number of checks and balances. More and more automation is resorted to prevent the human error.
There are only two major devices are used in process.
The transmitter is housed in signal pole and it is activated only when red light is on. The heart of the circuit is IC555. The main component of the circuit is only IC555. Both ICs are connected in astable mode.
The frequency of U2 is 0.5 Hz and U1 is 38 KHz. This is decided by RC components connected with it.The output of U2 is connected with the 9V DC bettery is connected with circuit through SPDT swith SW1 as shown. As shown in figure when SW1 is in position as shown the transmitter is on and also the red LED is also ON. When switch changes its position the red LED and transmitter is off and only green LED will ON. When the circuit is energized U@ will start generating high pulse at every 1 sec. as this pulse is fed to reset pin of U1 it will generate 38 KHz for the same time. Thus after every one second the IR beam of 38 KHz is generated for one second only. This cycle repeats till the red light is on.
The basic idea is to attached a transmitter with signal pole which will start transmitting signals only when the red light is on. When there will be green light no signal will be transmitted. The engine has a receiver which catches these transmitted signals and takes desire action. Both the transmitter and receiver are of RF type with minimum range of 2Km, so that train can get enough time to decrease its speed and stop before the signal pole with the minimum swapping distance of 100 – 200 meters.
The receiver is housed in engine which senses the IR signals and takes suitable actin. 24 VAC is rectified by diode
bridge D11 and filtered through C1 and given to all the regulated ICs as input. The output of 7805 is connected to 89C51 and TSOP and also to all the LDs. Output of 7812 (last one) is connected to common coil terminal and to ULN. The output of middle four regulated ICs are connected to DC motor through relay contacts. Output of TSOP is connected with pin P3.3 (INT1) of microcontroller. All five LEDs are connected with port P0 as shown input of ULN is connected with port 1 pins P1.0-P1.3, and outputs are connected with second terminal of relay coil. TSOP will detect the 38 KHz IR beam and gives the interrupt to 89C51. 89C51 will indicate the interrupt event on first (Green) LED and energized only one particular relay thought ULN chip. When any of the four relay get energized the motor will get supply from it and it will start running as voltage is less it will run with less speed. So now it’s the function of microcontroller to receivesignal from IR sensor, decrease the speed of train gradually in four steps and then stop it. And this is done by software
embedded in to 89C51. RF Receiver is placed on train to receive RF signal. DCMotor is used to run the train engine and relays are used to control the speed of train. When the train approaches to the level crossing, if RF Receiver detects any RF signal then it sends the signal to Microcontroller through decoder. After getting signal, Microcontroller gradually decreases the speed of DC motor through motor driver and stops automatically.
After that, while RF Receiver doesn’t receive any signal, it runs automatically and increasing its speed. Speed of the DC motor is controlled with the help of relays.
2. BASIC MODEL OF THE SYSTEM :
The total essence and the functioning of the research are represented in a single block diagram which mainly consist of five parts. They include
- IR Sensor
- ATmega8 Microcontroller
- DC motor
Detection of train approaching to the level crossing can be sensed by means of two pairs of IR sensors (named Train Arrival/Departure Sensor, shown in figure 2) that placed on either side of the level crossing with some distance. Another four pairs of IR sensors (named Obstacle sensor, shown in figure 2) are placed on the crossing gate on either side of track. On each side one pair is placed horizontally that senses any vehicle as obstacle on the track and other pair is placed vertically downward that senses any vehicle as obstacle under the crossing gate. Buzzer and signal light are placed on the signal pole. RF Transmitter is placed on the top of the signal pole to transmit signal to the train (shown in figure 1). Two DC Motors are placed on each side of track to control the gate. Total mechanism is done by software embedded into Microcontroller. Microcontroller is used for both units.
When the train cuts first sensor, it generates an interruption for IR sensor (Train Arrival/Departure Sensor) and sends the interrupted signal to microcontroller. After getting the signal, Microcontroller actives a buzzer until the train cuts second sensor and trying to runs both the motor using relay on either side in clockwise direction through motor driver to close the gate. By this time, Microcontroller also checks any obstacle on track or under gate through obstacle sensors. If there is no obstacle, it runs both the motor in clockwise direction through motor driver to close the gate and shows Green signal for train. Due to Green signal there is no transmission of RF Transmitter means no interruption of train’s speed. But there is an obstacle, it doesn’t run the motors.
IR sensing circuit:
Infrared transmitter is one type of LED which emits infrared rays generally called as IR transmitter.Both transmitter and receiver should be placed straight line to each other.Whenever the signal is high ,IR transmitter LED is conducting,it passes the IR rays to receiver.The IR receiver is connected to comparator.In the comparator circuit the reference voltage is given to inverting input terminal and the non inverting input terminal is connected IR receiver.Hence the non inverting input voltage is lower than inverting inputs.Now comparator output is GND,so the output is given to microcontroller or pc.
LED falls within the family of pn junction devices.The light emitting diode is a diode will give off visible when it is energized.LED is a component used for indication.The LED is diode which glows when the current is being flown through it in forward bias condition.
The LCD display consists of two lines,20 characters per line that is infrared.It also contain a user programmed to generate any desire character that can be formed using a dot matrix.
It is a low power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR RSIC architecture.It achives throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHZ,allowing the system designed to optimize power consumption ersus processing speed.The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non volatile memory technology.It is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highy flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
This paper has satisfactorily fulfilled the basic things such as prevention of accidents inside the level crossing and the wastage of a man-power. Since this arrangement can be used in remote areas where the power supply can’t be expectedfor the motor operation, sensors, buzzer and signal lights, solar power can be the solution there. It can be used directly during the daytime and by charging the battery during night. Using the same principle as that for gate control, I havedeveloped a concept of automatic track switching. Considering a situation where an express train and a localtrain are travelling in opposite direction on the same trackthe express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track, indicator lights have been provided to avoid collision. Here the operation is performed using a motor. Electromagnets can be used in practical purpose.
Initially when you switch on the supply 89C51 will switch all the relays RL1- RL4 one by one. So motor will get 9-12-15-18 V supply in steps and gradually increases its speed reaches max speed indicated by first red LED (P0.0). Now if the signal is green then train will cross the pole with same pole But if signal becomes red in between then IR sensor will detect IR beam and interrupts the 89C51 Getting first interrupt 89C51 will switch off RL4 and switch on RL3 so now motor will get 15 V supply and its speed will be decreased. That’s indicated by second red LED (P0.1).Now 89C51 will wait for some time (2 to 3 sec) and train goes on with same speed. Again if still red signal is on 89C51 will be interrupted and this time it will switch on RL2. so now motor gets 12V supply and again its speed will be decreased indicated by third red LED (P0.2) The same procedure repeats if 89C51 is interrupted third times. Now motor runs at min speed (9 V) indicated by fourth red LED (P0.3) After same delay on receiving fourth interrupt all the relays will be switched off and motor is now stop so the train is also stopped. This is indicated by green LED. After this interrupts will be disabled. So now when red signal becomes green driver must reset the controller to start the train again.
Even if he forgets to take any action on red signal then also we can avoid accidents by the implementation of this idea.
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- The IUP Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Vol. IV, No. 4, pp. 36-47, October 2011. Available at SSRNavoid-accidents-andrailway- gate-controlling.
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