Department of Electronics Engineering
Tulsiramji Gaikwad -Patil college of Engineering and Technology Nagpur, India
Everyone is in a hurry these days and that is reflected in the erratic driving behavior we often see by drivers rushing to get somewhere. ‘Red Light Runners’ are on the rise and more alarming is the carnage that they are leaving behind in their haste. Last year, 676 people were killed and an estimated 116,000 were injured in crashes involving drivers who ran red lights, stops signs and other traffic control devices. In Kentucky, there were 3,695 collisions resulting in 31 deaths from crashes caused by disregarding traffic signals Enforcement is the key to getting people to comply with the law, but communities don’t have the resources to allow law enforcement to patrol intersections as often as is needed to ticket all motorists who run red lights. Many cities have installed cameras at large intersections and studies show that these cameras have been effective in reducing the number of citations written for disregarding traffic signals in these areas.
Keywords – Microcontroller Based System, Embedded System, Traffic Control Management.
The obligation on the motorist is to stop, unless the light is green, in which case you may proceed only if it is clear and safe to do so. If the amber light is illuminated, a vehicle must stop, unless it has already passed the white stop line or the vehicle is so close to the stop line, that coming to a halt might cause an accident. If the red light is showing, then you must stop behind the stop line in all circumstances.
When approaching a traffic light that is illuminated on green, you may proceed if it is clear and safe to do so. If the light is amber, you must stop unless your wheels are already over the white line, or you do not have enough room to brake before the stop line without causing an accident. If the light is red, you are obligated to stop in all circumstances. If you do not stop when it is indicated that you should do so, you have committed a traffic light offence.
2. RELATED WORK
A. Intelligent Traffic Lights Based on RFID This paper states that the traffic management is the critical issue of the road. Traffic lights play an important role in the traffic management. The existing traffic lights follow the predetermined sequence. So these lights are called static traffic lights. These traffic lights are not capable to count the number of vehicles and the priority of the vehicles on intersection point. As a result some vehicles have to wait even there is no traffic on the other side. The vehicles like Ambulance and Fire Brigade are also stuck in traffic and waste their valuable time. The proposed system provides quality of service to Emergency vehicles and improves the accuracy of Automatic Traffic Light Violation Detection system as well as helps to trace out the stolen vehicles using RFID.
D. Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Using RFID It avoids problems that usually arise with standard traffic control systems, especially those related to image processing and beam interruption techniques. This RFID technique deals with a multi-vehicle, multilane, multi road junction area. It provides an efficient time management scheme, in which a dynamic time schedule is worked out in real time for the passage of each traffic column. The real time operation of the system emulates the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty. The number of vehicles in each column and the routing are proprieties, upon which the calculations and the judgments are based
3. PROPOSED SYSTEM
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices consist of tags and readers that assist in the tracking of goods and vehicles. Tags are the devices that give identity to the vehicle and work like a wireless name plate. It transmits it identity to readers which are placed at strategic locations like RED light crossing of a premise, highway,. Readers pick up these signals and transmit them to the centralized data servers from where the information can be viewed or utilized any where. These readers can also trigger the other peripheral devices like an access control mechanism- boom barrier to operate as per the business logic. For. e.g on identifying a known vehicle, a reader can signal the boom barrier to open and allow the vehicle automatically. The read-range of the reader varies from 5m to 30 m depending upon the technology(Passive Vs Active) in place. The use of RFID technology also necessitates the purchase and utilization of either fixed or hand held readers which can help the guard to quickly access the vehicle information by bringing the device near the vehicle.
4. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
A. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) RFID is an acronym for radio frequency identification. Briefly the RF stand for “radiofrequency” and ID means “identifier” that allows an item, for instance a library book, to be identified, accessed, stored, reprogrammed and communicated by using radio waves. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a generic term for non-contacting technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a unique serial number that identifies a person or object on a microchip that is attached to an antenna. The combined antenna and microchip are called an “RFID transponder” or “RFID tag” and work in combination with an “RFID reader”. An RFID system consists of a reader and one or more tags. The reader’s antenna is used to transmit radio frequency (RF) energy. The tag will then modulate the electromagnetic waves generated by the reader in order to transmit its data back to the reader. The reader receives the modulated waves and converts them into digital data. There are two major types of tag technologies. “Passive tags” are tags that do not contain their own power source or transmitter. When radio waves from the reader reach the chip’s antenna, the energy is converted by the antenna into electricity that can power up the microchip in the tag. The tag is then able to send back any information stored on the tag by reflecting the electromagnetic waves as described above. “Active tags” have their own power source and transmitter. The power source, usually a battery, is used to run the microchip’s circuitry and to broadcast a signal to a reader. Due to the fact that passive tags do not have their own transmitter and must reflect their signal to the reader, the reading distance is much shorter than with active tags. However, active tags are typically larger, more expensive, and require occasional service. Frequency refers to the size of the radio waves used to communicate between the RFID system components. Just as you tune your radio to different frequencies in order to hear different radio stations, RFID tags and readers must be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate effectively. The read range of a tag ultimately depends on many factors: the frequency of RFID system operation, the power of the reader, environmental conditions, physical size of the tags antenna and interference from other RF devices. The Sunrom RFID Card Reader’s antenna was designed with a RFID operation at a tag read distance of around 7 cm.
B. Global Position System (GPS) Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites broadcast signals from space that GPS receivers, use to provide three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus precise time. GPS receivers provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth. The output is serial data of 9600 baud rate which is standard NMEA 0183 v3.0 protocol offering industry standard data messages and a command set for easy interface to mapping software and embedded devices. The current GPS consists of three major segments. These are the space segment (SS), a control segment (CS), and a user segment (US).
C. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) GSM uses Frequency Division Multiplexing AND Time Division Multiplexing. FDMA divides the frequency ranges for GSM, which are 890- 915, 935-960 and some others that the book didn’t have. Each is divided into 200kHz wide channels. As far as TDMA goes, each time slot is 577 micro seconds long, 8 time slices is a frame, lasting for a grand total of 4.615ms. A multi frame consists of 51 frames, 51 multi frames make up a Super frame, and 2048 Super frames make a Hyper frame which is 2715648 frames. The GSM network can be divided into three parts to illustrate this, consider figure 1. i) Mobile station, ii) Base station subsystem and iii) Network subsystem.
5. ADVANTAGES OF RFID IN VEHICLES
- Tamper proof
- Concealed installation of antennas
- Weather proof
- 100 % detection for two-wheelers / four-wheelers
- No height restrictions on vehicles as scanning is done from underneath
- RFID tags can be affixed to automobiles for activating hands-free access to communities and parking lots.
- The RFID reader can also trigger surveillance cameras or video recorders whenever a vehicle enters or exits the controlled area.
- Each access can be recorded in the RFID reader or host computer’s database to maintain a history of access activities and administer billing of daily, weekly, or monthly fees.
- Gives automatic notification when a car enters or leaves the lot
- Eliminates manual record keeping, thereby increasing accuracy and staff productivity.
Tracking vehicles within the plant: The use of RFID in a vehicle assembly line ensures optimum operation, enhanced efficiency and eliminates the possibility of fraud and theft. Strategically positioned fixed RFID readers with multiple tag reading capability trace the newly finished cars as they leave the product line. In this way vehicles can be tracked throughout the plant.
Prevents manipulation of data: The security issues RFID tags to the trucks that are coming inside the premises. It is attached to the truck that carries the cane load and identification is done throughout its journey. The RFID antenna will be coupled to the PC and once the truck is over the weigh bridge the data is captured from the tag and this is passed on to the PC for processing. This can reduce your fraud activities drastically.
Better Fleet Management: RFID has enabled better fleet management. Now the transporters have a fix on reasons behind vehicular downtime. They know how long it takes to load raw materials and they can measure the performance of drivers. Transporters can plan availability of trucks based on the latest tracking data and make optimum use of their fleets.
Parking Lot Access Control: We also provide parking barrier drop-arm control systems to control authorized access into and out of the parking area. RFID based access control systems ensures that only authorized vehicles can get into and get out of the parking area. Parking barrier arms automatically lifts to let the vehicle pass through on success identification of the vehicle RFID tag. This can be done by fixing RFID tag to the windscreen of the vehicle. When the vehicle comes in range of the reader, the reader reads the card ID and authenticates the same. If ID is authenticated the relay for moving the boom barrier is fired and access to the parking lot is
enabled. In this way there is no need for any guard to be monitoring the exit and entry of vehicles to the parking lot. The vehicles will be logged automatically and a total report of the usage of the parking lot can be generated.
This system will definitely help to traffic police to give the way to the ambulance when there is heavy traffic on the road. Also the condition of patient is monitored and this information is send to the respective doctor so that doctor can prepare for the next process before the patient reach to the hospital. The design and implementation of this technique is directly targeted for traffic management so that emergency vehicle on road get clear way to reach there destination in less time and without any human interruption. The main feature of this operation is the ability to communicate with purpose using GSM and GPS. It is very smart to find the location of emergency of VIP vehicle and get clear path to pass on.
- Nor Azlina , Bt Abd Rahman , Mohsen Bafandehkar, Behzad Nazarbakhsh , Nurul Haniza Bt Mohtar , “Ubiquitous Computing For Security Enhancement Of Vehicles”, IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES) ,Beijing, pp: 113- 118, 2011.
- Omidiora E.O, Fakolujo O.A, Arulogun O.T, Aborisade D.O, “A Prototype of a Fingerprint Based Ignition Systems in Vehicles”, European Journal of Scientific Research, pp: 164-171, 2011.
- Weiqi Yuan, Yonghua Tang, “The Driver Authentication Device Based on the Characteristics of Palm print and Palm Vein”, International Conference on Hand-Based Biometrics (ICHB), Hong kong, pp: 1-5, 2011.
- Hugo Silva, Andr’e Lourenc¸ O’Ana Fred, “In-Vehicle Driver Recognition Based on Hands ECG Signals”, International Conference on Intelligent User Interface , Lisbon, Portugal, pp: 25-28, 2012.
- Ronghua Chen, Mary Fenghua She, Xiangping Sun, Lingxue Kong, Yuchuan Wu , “Driver Recognition Based on Dynamic Handgrip Pattern on Steeling Wheel”, 12th ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing, Sydney NSW, pp: 108-112, 2011.
- Pazhampilly Sreedevi A, Sarath S Nair B, “Image Processing Based Real Time Vehicle Theft Detection And Prevention System”, International Conference on Process Automation, Control and Computing (PACC), Coimbatore, pp: 1-6, 2011.