Prof. Chaitanya A. Sakhare , Prof. Nitin Shirigiriwar
Assistant Professor, Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Nagpur University
Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya Sakkardara square, Nagpur,Maharashtra,India
Sales management has changed dramatically in the past decade. With increasing globalization and many companies adding more virtual workers, the task of managing these diverse sales teams has become increasingly complicated. In a connected and evolving world it is hard to offer a definitive guide, The business, is now society-oriented, on human-welfare aspects. So, sales management has to work in a broader and newer environment, in co-existence with the traditional lines.The Indian electronic goods industry forms a small part of the global electronics industry. However, in the recent years, the domestic market has witnessed a robust growth driven by several factors such as manufacturing growth, ICT penetration, rising disposable income, retail boom and attractive finance schemes.
This study strives to sketch out changing trends in sales management. The objective of this research is intended to study changing scenario of sales management in today’s modern world with reference to consumer electronics goods in India.
In the first part, we have discussed the brief about sales management and consumer electronics. Then, we have discussed the about changing scenario of sales management. Then, we have studied the ….
Keywords— Globalization, virtual workers, electronic goods
Originally, the term ‘sales management’ referred to the direction of sales force personnel. But, it has gained a significant position in the today’s world. Sales management refers to the administration of the personal selling component of an organization’s marketing program. It includes the planning, implementation, and control of sales programs, as well as recruiting, training, motivating, and evaluating members of the sales force.
Now, the sales management meant management of all marketing activities, including advertising, sales promotion, marketing research, physical distribution, pricing, and product merchandising.
Sales management can be defined as the business discipline that focuses on improving the practical application of sales techniques, processes, systems, and operations in order to increase revenue. Sales managers occupy one of the most important positions with the entire company.
Effective management of the sales organization is vital to the overall health of the organization. Sales managers must set the tone and the culture of the organization. Failure to create a positive culture within the sales organization can ruin morale and ultimately see top sales talent leave the company.
Consumer Electronic goods
The Indian electronics industry is broadly divided into consumer electronics, industrial electronics, computer hardware, strategic electronics, communication and broadcasting equipment and electronic components. In an economy, electronic devices and appliances represent consumer goods that enable individuals to take joy in entertainment and/or enhance their lives. White goods are items such as refrigerators, ranges, freezers, and washer/dryer sets. Alternatively brown goods include electronic items such as televisions, DVD players, stereos, and home entertainment systems. India has a large manufacturing base for this segment and it is a highly competitive market. Currently, the Indian consumer electronics market is dominated by the MNCs. Growing middle class, demand for premium and luxury products in the urban markets due to changing consumer lifestyle and low- end affordable products are driving the demand for this segment.
Major growth drivers of the Indian electronic goods sector
- Growth in per capita income and corporate spend on electronics
- Government’s focus on infrastructure •
- Transformation of electronics goods from an aspiration to a utilitarian need
- Quick rate of obsolescence in technology
- Availability of affordable products for lower income groups as well
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Online shopping trends in India are expected to continue to grow, made easier and convenient by deep penetration of mobile devices. Consumers indicate that they are likely to shop online more frequently in forthcoming years, said a CBRE India Consumer Survey 2015.
“A large majority of Indian shoppers anticipate spending more through both online as well as physical retail platforms in coming years. However, a much larger percentage (nearly 80%) of shoppers feel that they are likely to spend more via online shopping routes, in comparison to those who expect to spend more at physical stores,” said the survey.
Out of those who expect to spend more online, nearly 85% are in the age group of 18-24 years. Of those who anticipate spending more in coming years regardless of the retail platform, it is noted that most of their purchases are also expected to be online.
The consumer survey recently conducted by CBRE in India said almost 70% of the Indian shoppers interviewed feel that they are likely to shop more often from a desktop / laptop; while nearly 60% expect to use tablets / smartphones more often to shop online.
“With a large majority of the survey respondents preferring to use online platforms more often in coming years, it becomes imperative for retailers in the country to focus more on developing their online presence for a faster penetration into the Indian market,” said Vivek Kaul, Head, Retail Services India.
Research Design: Type of Study
This research tries to describe the opinion of the respondents on the selected topic. Although the design is called as descriptive, the part of the study related to collection of secondary data; does include exploration which has helped in formulating the hypothesis and objectives of this research.
Methods & Sources of Data Collection/Methods of Investigations:-
Both primary and secondary data has been used for the purpose of this study.
Primary data: Primary data is collected with the help of a structured questionnaire the same is finalized after conducting a pilot study.
- Questionnaire Technique.
- Personal interview.
Secondary data: The secondary data is collected from various published sources such as books, journals, newspapers, websites etc.
Sampling Design: Data is collected from both primary and secondary data through Questionnaire method, interviews. The Primary data is collected as already pre-tested schedules keeping in mind the objectives of the study. Total 100 customers are covered demographically.
Sampling frame: individuals between below 20 years age to above 60 years.
Sampling unit: individuals following into class of student, service, business, housewife and retired in Nagpur city
Sample area: The venue of the present study was conducted in Nagpur city
Sample size: 100 respondents.
Sampling method: simple random method
Respondents: consumers buying consumer electronic goods
CHANGING SCENARIO OF SALES MANAGEMENT:
Traditional Process of Sales Management and benefits
- Sales Planning
- Marketers use to plan things well in advance for the best results. It is essential to have concrete plans. Mere guess works do not help in business.
- Know your product well. Sales professionals must know the USPs and benefits of the product for the consumers to believe them.
- Identifying target market.
- Sales Planning makes the products available to the end users at the right time and at the right place.
- Sales Planning helps the marketers to analyze the customer demands and respond efficiently to fluctuations in the market.
- Devise appropriate strategies to increase the sales of the products.
- Sales Reporting
- Sales strategies are implemented in this stage.
- Check the effectiveness of the various strategies. Find out whether they are bringing the desired results or not.
- The sales representatives should be aware of their roles and responsibilities in the organization.
- It is essential for the organization to evaluate the outcome of proposed strategies for any particular department. Organizations depend on KPI also called Key Performance Indicator or simply Performance Indicator to measure the effectiveness of implemented strategies.
- Soliciting the sales team to submit reports of what all they have done throughout the week. The management must sit with the sales team frequently to assess their performance and chalk out future course of actions.
- Mapping individual performance over time is essential.
- Sales Process
- Sales representatives should work as a single unit for maximum productivity. A systematic approach results in error free work.
- The management must make sure sales managers follow a proper channel to reach out to the customers. It pays to adopt a step by step approach.
Sales professionals should follow the below mentioned steps for maximum sales and better output. Do not ignore any step.
- Initial Contact/Lead
- Collect necessary data of potential customers once the target market is decided.
- Information Exchange
- Inform the customers about various product offerings.
- Make the customers aware of your brand and its benefits.
- The information exchange can be either:
- Over the telephone or
- Face to face interaction with the potential customer.
- Lead Generation
- Make a list of the people who show inclination towards purchasing your organization’s products or services.
- The sales representatives must identify those who have the potential to buy their products.
- Need Identification
- Fix a meeting with the prospective buyers. Sit with the client and try to find out more about his needs and expectations.
- Suggest them various options which would fulfill their demands.
- Qualified Prospect
- Identify individuals who are keen on purchasing your company’s products or services.
- Once the buyer agrees to purchase particular products, the seller presents a written proposal to him quoting the rates as well as other necessary terms and conditions. Such a document is often called a proposal.
- Negotiation is a stage where two parties (buyer and seller) discuss and negotiate for the best deal beneficial to all.
- Closing of Deal
- This is the stage where the transaction between the seller and buyer takes place. The selling happens in this stage.
- After Sales Service
- Keep in touch with the customers even after the purchase for higher customer retention.
Modern shopping era:
The modern buyer completes up to 60% of the buying process before the sales representative is even engaged. Buyer’s now engage with company website’s, white papers, and case studies before the sales rep is involved. As a result, sales reps must take on the role of consultative and value adding experts when they speak with the prospect.
Leading a sales force to deliver profitable revenue growth in today’s complex business environment is a big challenge. Not so long ago, when making critical sales force decisions, sales leaders relied primarily on their own judgment and experience, as well as on input from field sales managers and salespeople. Today, sales leaders need to do more. A perfect storm of data, technology, and analytic innovation is radically changing the dynamics of sales force management and allowing leaders to gain new insights for driving sales force success.
Modern Sales Management Tools
- Use Web-to-lead functionality
- Creating successful email campaigns
- Salesforce CRM and Google AdWords
- Creating a social media strategy
- Mobile apps
- Emerging and rapidly multiplying electronic sales/marketing channels, such as the Internet, extranets, e-mails, faxes, direct mail, television home shopping, and tele-selling, are making channel management increasingly difficult and important. But, at the same time, electronic communication channels, such as intranets, are helping sales managers in their more traditional functions through use of empowered salespeople with virtual, mobile sales offices that dramatically lessen their dependence on the flow of communication from sales management.
- Many durables are sold through retail chains now days. Tata Nano is trying to ramp up its sales by exploring unconventional channels like the Big Bazaar outlets.
- A consumer’s trust in an Internet shop varies in proportion to the perceived size and perceived reputation of its physical store network and perceived privacy at the e-shop.
- The Internet will have the greatest impact on marketing communication, a moderate effect on the sales transaction, and a minimal impact on logistics with the exception of information goods. This situation may hinder the future penetration of electronic commerce because many transactions do require some kind of pre-purchase inspection i.e physical evidence is inevitable.
- Conventional marketing may become slow or stagnated over a period of time. Multi level marketing may be the turnaround tool in such situations.
Sales management techniques:
Explosion of Data :
- Direct sales transactions
- Customer profiles
- Sales through distributors
- Demographics/market potential
- Competitive intelligence
- Sales force activity data
- Salesperson profiles
- Social networks
Enabling Technologies and Analytics:
- Mobile devices
- Cloud computing
- Business intelligence, sales force automation, and performance management systems
- Advanced analytic and reporting tools
- Descriptive, predictive, and optimization models
- Decision frameworks
Sales Analytics: A Powerful Tool
In common parlance analytics means information resulting from the systematic analysis of data or statistics.To compete more effectively today, companies need certain capabilities like a set of people and competencies, processes, data, and tools for using analytics and decision frameworks to support sales force needs, diagnose problems and opportunities, and design solutions for major sales force decisions. Sales analytics capabilities can reside in a dedicated internal function, such as a sales operations or analytics department.
Capabilities can also reside in other company departments, such as Finance or Information Technology (IT), or with outsourcing partners. Regardless of where the capabilities reside, the best sales leaders view the sales analytics function as a partner in setting the right priorities for constantly improving sales force decisions and leading efforts for positive change.
The Sales Force Effectiveness Drivers :
Many decisions and processes are required to operate a sales force. These decisions and processes are key determinants of sales performance; thus, we call them the sales force effectiveness (SFE) drivers. list of the principal SFE drivers organized into four categories: sales strategy, organization, people, and activity enablement. The SFE drivers influence and determine the sales team and its activities. Strong SFE drivers, enabled by analytics and decision frameworks, ensure that the right people are in place and are engaged in the right activities for driving success with customers and ultimately delivering company results.
- Customer potential
- Customer targeting
- Sales process
- Sales force size
- Sales force structure
- Territory design
- Success profile
- Training and coaching
- Incentives and goals
- Dashboards and information
- Performance management
Sales force members, ranges from top leadership (e.g., a sales vice president) to firstline sales managers (e.g., district or regional sales managers) to frontline salespeople
Designing Sales Force Effectiveness Drivers:
Every SFE driver has to be designed in the first place, and then it has to be redesigned as the sales environment evolves and diagnosis reveals opportunities for improvement. Examples of SFE driver design include:
Guidelines for Sales Force Effectiveness Drivers
- Prioritize customers and define sales process
- Determine sales force roles, size, structure, and territories
- Set goals and establish compensation plan.
- Design and implement information tools.
- Monitor and manage performance
DATA ANALYSIS & FINDINGS
|Sr. No.||Gender||No. Of Respondent|
- Respondents age group
|Sr. No.||Age group||No.of respondents|
|1||Below 20 – 30||36|
|4||50 -60 and above||18|
- Benefits shopper look for in buying process?
|Sr. No.||Benefits||Weighted Response||Ranks|
|2||Less time consuming||965||12|
|5||Pre-sale services & after-sale services||465||5|
|7||Easy sales transactions||886||11|
|8||Safe & Secure||442||4|
|11||Price option & economy||280||2|
Source: Primary Data
It is found that buyers look for trust as the most beneficial factor and less time consuming as least beneficial factor in buying process.
- Channel which provides best service at pre sale and after sales stage of shopping.
|Sr. No||Sales channel||Total points based on weights||Rank|
|2||Company web sites||368||5|
|3||Online shopping websites||232||3|
|4||Shopping through Mobile app||168||2|
Source: Primary Data
It can be inferred as dealer store provides best service at pre sale and after sales stage of shopping followed by shopping through mobile.
- H0: There is no relationship between the age of consumer and the changing trends in shopping.
H1: There is a relationship between the age of consumer and the changing trends in shopping.
|Shopping Method||Below 20-30||30-40||40-50||50-60 & above||Row Totals|
|Traditional (Dealers)||6 (12.24) [3.18]||6 (8.16) [0.57]||11 (7.48) [1.66]||11 (6.12) [3.89]||34|
|Modern(Online Store)||30 (23.76) [1.64]||18 (15.84) [0.29]||11 (14.52) [0.85]||7 (11.88) [2.00]||66|
|Column Totals||36||24||22||18||100 (Grand Total)|
Source: Primary Data
The chi-square statistic is 14.0919. The p-value is .002783. The result is significant at p < .05.
Since the P-value (.002783) is less than the significance level (0.05), we cannot accept the null hypothesis. Thus, we conclude that there is a relationship between the age of consumer and the changing trends in shopping.
2. H0: There is no change in preference of people in shopping consumer electronic goods through traditional method over modern method.
H1: There is change in preference of people in shopping consumer electronic goods through traditional method over modern method.
|Shopping Method||Age group|
|Below 20-30||30-40||40-50||50-60 & above||Row Totals|
|Dealer store||6 (12.24) [3.18]||6 (8.16) [0.57]||11 (7.48) [1.66]||11 (6.12) [3.89]||34|
|Company website||3 (3.96) [0.23]||3 (2.64) [0.05]||3 (2.42) [0.14]||2 (1.98) [0.00]||11|
|Online Shopping web sites||8 (7.20) [0.09]||8 (4.80) [2.13]||3 (4.40) [0.45]||1 (3.60) [1.88]||20|
|Mobiles Apps||18 (9.72) [7.05]||5 (6.48) [0.34]||3 (5.94) [1.46]||1 (4.86) [3.07]||27|
|Telemarketing||1 (2.88) [1.23]||2 (1.92) [0.00]||2 (1.76) [0.03]||3 (1.44) [1.69]||8|
|Column Totals||36||24||22||18||100 (Grand Total)|
Source: Primary Data
The chi-square statistic is 29.1327. The p-value is .003765. The result is significant at p < .05.
Since the P-value (.003765) is less than the significance level (0.05), we cannot accept the null hypothesis. Thus, we conclude there is change in preference of people in shopping consumer electronic goods through traditional method over modern method.
Findings of the Study
This analysis was done through statistical tools based on primary data acquired through survey conducted with questionnaires distributed at the stores and online.
- People who belong to the age group of below 20-30 shop online more often than people of other age groups
- Various offers attract large number of online shoppers as it leads to saving of money.
- Amongst the respondents the number of female respondents is same as the male respondents
- While shopping online the respondents prefer that online retailer who has a better return policy and the ability to compare the products in the website that is the online site should be user friendly.
- The respondent’s family income affects the online buying behavior.
- People prefer a lot of options while shopping online and the respondents prefer to shop online because of the ability to shop around for a lower price and the flexibility of shopping hours.
- It is also found that there is considerable improvement in the online shopping trend and the respondents agree that they can easily adapt to the change and the change enables them to buy online very often.
We are now living in a digital age and thus need to keep up with new trends in the online shopping and where new norms are created over time, many challenges evolve that we need to keep up with the new updates in the market creating value along with delivering delight to the customers. It can be concluded that consumers who are youth are more techno-savvy and interested to shop more through modern methods of shopping like online websites, online mobile apps. Consumers of the age of above 50 years prefer buying through conventional shopping methods. Housewives more shop through telemarketing since its more convenient to buy goods which are as per their needs are available through telemarketing.