Volumn 2

A RESEARCH PAPER ON COMPARITIVE STUDY OF STATUS OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS [ A STUDY ON SBI AND ICICI BANK ]

1.ANUSHREE  A. MAHAJAN     2.   DR. S.C. GULHANE

PRERNA  RESEARCH  ACADEMY,NAGPUR

Abstract

Despite the increase in number  of women employees in banks , many women still are concentrated at the clerical level; very few women employees are at managerial level. Women managers, officers, and clerical groups in their banking career face some common problems. These include the burden of dual role, sexual harassment in the workplace, the refusal of men to accept women as colleagues or seniors, the need to work twice as much as men to gain recognition, and the lack of solidarity among women.

The focus of this manuscript is on the comparative status of women employees in public  and private sector banks.The banks selected for the study were State Bank of India ,the biggest public sector bank,ICICI Bank,the leading bank in private sector  It provides a brief overview of the status of Indian women in banking sector and the  progress they have made in Indian society

The study is about the comparitive status of  Indian women in public private and cooperative sector banks, who have been placed in various positions  in thePublic and Private  banking sector and how they over coming the problem of glass ceiling against them and how they looking to strike a better balance between work and families responsibilities tend to prefer jobs in the banking sector.

Key Words:  status ,women employes ,public sector banks , private sector banks

I .  INTRODUCTION

The position of women in modern India was one of great social upliftment. There was a major change seen not merely in the lives of the women themselves but also in the perception of their roles and functions by society. It paved the way for the greater independence and expression of individuality of Indian women.

India’s banking sector has witnessed explosive growth and expansion ever since the era of economic reforms was launched nearly two decades ago. That growth has also created new windows of opportunity for women to find employment in the banking sector.
In fact, the nationalization of the Indian banking sector in 1969 served as the first major step to reduce gender discrimination against women in banking jobs . However, the general pattern of women’s employment in this sector has shown that there has been a sort of persistent invisible glass ceiling against women acquiring the top management positions in banking.

During the early nineties we can hardly find an Indian woman at the top of a banking or financial institution. But now, the scenario is changed, with the continuous growth in the banking sector, banks has created new windows of opportunity for women to find employment in the banking sector.

 II. LITERATURE  REVIEW

To understand the present study in its proper perspective, it is important to know what has already been done in the field of  women and their status in the banking industry

In today’s environment, managing the intangible asset (knowledge) possessed by the tangible asset (Human Resource) is rapidly becoming as important as managing the organisation’s cash flows and asset-liability mix. Hence, a few studies have been undertaken on this field and it is worthwhile to review some important studies conducted in the problem area selected for the study.

Hameet Kaur (2010), tries to highlight the various values, attitudes and beliefs of women regarding job anxiety in their formal work organizations and particularly balancing their work and personal life. This paper will also focus on factors affecting quality of work life and job satisfaction among females in present business scenario. More stress would be given to issues related to women and growth in the present business scenario. Women’s employment in the original sector has been growing over the years. The growth in women’s employment has been more marked in the public sector.

Vijaya Mani (2013) has revealed the major factors influencing the Work Life Balance of Women professionals in India such as role conflict, lack of recognition, organizational politics, gender discrimination, elderly and children care issues, quality of health, problems in time management and lack of proper social support.

Sumana Devi and Ajay Sunja (2013) in their study “Job satisfaction among bank employees: A comparative study of public sector and private sector banks”, found that there is a significance difference exists between employees of private and public sector banks. The author suggested that public sector banks should increase the pay and also the employees need to be empowered

III.  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Given the large number of banks, and the time and resource constraints of this study, I decided to select only 2 banks one in each sector that is public and ,private  sector  .I decided to select public sector gaint ,State Bank of India, a prominent  leader in private sector ICICI bank in Nagpur City for my study .

Table1.Banks selected for the study

SR.NONAME OF THE BANKNO. OF BRANCHES  SELECTED FOR  STUDYSECTOR
1STATE BANK OF INDIA12PUBLIC SECTOR BANK
2ICICI BANK10PRIVATE SECTOR BANK

IV.   WOMEN’S  EMPLOYMENT  IN  THE  BANKING  SECTOR  IN  INDIA

Although the majority of women in the banking sector are clerical and subordinate staff (69.9 percent of all women employees in 2009), this proportion has clearly been gradually declining since liberalisation. For instance, in 1999, 86.8 percent of all women employees were clerical and subordinate staff (Table 4.1).27 Instead, women have been making steady progress into managerial positions: while women’s share of total employment in banking increased marginally from 14.2 percent to 16.8 percent between 1999 and 2009, women’s share of managerial positions almost doubled from 6.7 percent to 12.6 percent in the same period.

Not only in the higher levels that we can see the involvement of women. In the clerical levels also women are more attracted. Secured family life, attractive salary, favorable working conditions and the stability in work are some of the reasons that make this sector more preferable to women. Women, who generally have a clerical working mindset, will be more attentive and keen in doing their work. There is much smaller incidence of being involved in corrupt and fraudulent activities against banks. At the same time, women employees in the banking sector are criticized for their clerical working mindset. They are not much innovative as men. In fact, they are not ambitious as men are and are not ready to undertake heavy risk.

Now the scenario is changing. Women are realizing the need for making things happen. The bangle wearing hands have experienced the power of putting signature on important documents. The decisions that are approved by their fingertips are indirectly making waves in the economy. Yes…the women in the country are moving towards the wider opportunities that the banking sector offers and they are climbing the ladders to reach the peak where fame, recognition and responsibilities are waiting for them.

 V.  OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

The main objective of the present research study entitled Comparative study of status of women employees in public and private sector banks(SBI and ICICI bank)   is to explain the position  and status of women employees in the public sector and private sector sector  banks particularly in the State Bank of India and ICICI bank 

  • To study and compare the the status of women in public sector and ,private sector sector banks on the basis of few selected  parameters
  • To compare the future prospects for women in terms of promotion,job security etc.in public sector and,private sector sector banks
  • To study the factor hindering career advancement for women.
  • To suggest some policy measures on the basis of findings of the study

VI.    HYPOTHESIS

H1: There is no significant difference betweenthe status of women employees in public and private sector banks.

H2:There is remarkable difference in  the status of women employees of public and private sector banks.

VI.   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

6.1    Instrumentation

For effective and flawless data collection, survey, interview and case study methods were extensively used. Survey method is the most extensively used technique for data collection, especially in behavioral sciences, while interviews are an appropriate method to use when exploring practitioners perspectives due to the qualitative nature of the information

6.2.Preparation of Questionnaire and Testing

Since the topic of research is such that it requires collection of the primary data a questionnaire was prepared ,which was circulated among the women employees  of SBIand ICICI Bank  of few branches in Nagpur city . The aim of the questionnaire survey was to strengthen my research analysis by providing easily measurable numerical data on women’s experiences of work and employment that would allow comparisons between women in public and  private  sector banks.

  6.3 Field work and collection of data:

Having formulated the research problem, developed a study design, constructed a research instrument and selected a sample,  the data was collected from which   inferences were drawn  and conclusions were arrived at. Data was collected from both ,primary and secondary  sources by following  methods:

Primary data

I tried to gather the details of  the HR policies of banks to complement the findings from the questionnaire survey of female employees, by providing data on the gender distribution of employees within banks, and further information on the institutional factors affecting women’s employment.

Secondary data-

The data gathered from the questionnaire surveys, interviews and participant observation were complemented by information from secondary sources, such as

Bank records

Journals

Magzines

News papers

Websites of selected bank.

These secondary sources were valuable sources of information especially since there was a poor response to the enquiry on  HR policies of banks

6.4  Participants

The participants in the study were 100 women who occupied various positions in a public sector  and ,private sector sector banks i,e SBI,ICICI and Shikshak Sahakari Bank  in the branches of Nagpur, India

Table 2: Sample Size of Women Employees from the Banks

Sr. No.  Type of BanksNo. of RespondentsPercentage of total sample
1State Bank of India5050%
2ICICI  Bank5050%
 TOTAL100100%

6.5     Limitations Of The Study

  • The major limitation of the study is the research focuses on the comparative study of one bank each from public and private sectors. Other banks belonging to the same sectors have not been considered .
  • The study is confined to only the branches of the selected banks in Nagpur city.
  • A study of this kind relies heavily on the information available with the organizations to be studied. The banking sector being huge, the research scope is confined to study the employee at SBIand  ICICI banks only.
  • The conclusion mentioned above should be understood as indication. This is because, for drawing conclusions, more studies of this nature and on controlled and large samples are needed

VII . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 Table3:Findings of the study (Figures are number of women employees)

 SBI YES    NONO REPLY  TOTALICICI YES       NO      NO REPLYTOTAL
A) Participative Environment36100450406450
B) Encouraging Work Culture211811503210850
C)Promotional Opportunities1810125030101050
  D) Welfare Schemes Specially Designed For Women Employees2216125031081150
  E) Scope For Vertical Growth1721125028121050
  F) Job Security ,Security At Work Place,4154501826650
G)Equal Treatment And Equal Opportunities26168503210850
 
      

The qualitative and quantitative analysis of comparitive status of women employees of public and private sector  bank was one on the basis of interpretation derived out of the specially framed questionnaire with the help of tabulation of data . Major findings of the study have been summarized in Table 3 above. The study polled 100 banking employees from the branches of SBI and ICICI Banks located in Nagpur city

The above table depicts that most of the women in SBI answered that the working environment in their bank is participative ,a very few complained of capricious environment.Similarly the women employees of  ICICI Bank also gave similar answers , Most of the working women found participative environment in the banks especially in State bank of India but they didn’t found allotted work as per their qualification.

The answer to the  question on encouraging work environment shows significant difference in the response between the women employees of SBI and ICICI Bank. Only 50 percent of the women employees in SBI answered in yes ,and 80 percent of employees in ICICI Bank answered in yes which shows that in ICICI Bank there is more freedom to women employees and there is encouraging work culture  in private sector banks as far as their own work is concerned probably because in SBI being a public sector bank they are tied up in lot of formalities involved in working which deprives them of necessary freedom ,whereas in ICICI Bank more than 65 percent answered in yes because they say the that the work culture is free which gives them opportunity to give their best.This helps them in personel growth.

When the question was asked about the special welfare programmes for women employees conducted in the bank, 55 percent in SBI , more than  79 percent in ICICI Bank   answered in yes .The others who answered in no thought that they do not agree that any such programmes are meant specially for the development of women employees.

As far as scope for verticalgrowth  is concerned,the SBI employees less than 50 percent answered in yes whereas ICICI Bank Sizeable proportions (70%) of employees answered in yes because there is less stagnation in private sector banks and promotion is based on merit.  

When the question of job security arise the public sector bank SBI wins the game with the clean sweep because the job security is the biggest satisfying factor among the employees of SBI, here ICICI Bank lags behind because the employees feel that their job security is directly related to their performance ,due to which they feel  stressed many a times ,inspite of good working environment. In ICICI Bank half of the respondents (50 %) were satisfied with their salary package which they are paid for their job. Salary happens to be a satisfier for them. Security at work place is more looked after in ICICI Bank,specially for women employees.

 In answer to the question on equal treatment and equal opportunities to men and women employees ICICI Bank scores better than SBI.

Hypothesis one has been disproved thatthere is no significant difference betweenthe status of women employees in Public and  Private sector banks.The women employees of public sector bank lag  behind the women employees of  Private sectorin many aspects other than job security ,they do not enjoy equal status

Hypothesis two has been proved that Status of women employees is better  in public and private sector banks as compared to banks in cooperative sector in all perspectives  

 VII .CONCLUSION

The result of the study indicates that Participative Environment Encouraging Work Culture Promotional Opportunities Welfare Schemes Specially Designed For Women Employees Scope For Vertical Growth Job Security Security At Work Place, Equal Treatment And Equal Opportunities enhances the status of women employees. On the other hand, insecure job environment, lack of welfare policies, gender inequality, too much work pressure and unequal distribution of work lowers the morale and the status of women. Efficient human resource management and maintaining higher job satisfaction level among the women employees in banks determine not only the performance of the bank but also affect the growth and performance of the entire economy. So, for the success of banking, it is very important to manage women resource effectively and to provide them with a working environment which enable them to improve their performance and climb up the ladder of success. Only if they are satisfied, they will work with commitment and project a positive image of the organization and create more success stories in the banking sector.

VIII .SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of above findings of the study, a few suggestions are put forward, and if followed by the banks and the women employees, may help in enhancing their status in the banking industry

  • Recognition for work accomplished by employees is less in public banks, so banks can provide recognition by giving rewards on timely basis, by appreciating the work of such employees in meetings.
  • Public sector banks can provide opportunity for career progression to learn new skills with the help of advanced  training and  education programs to keep their employees at par with their counterparts in private and foreign banks.
  • Public sector banks should provide variety of job responsibilities and adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties in order to avoid monotonous work and to enhance all round development.
  • Most important cause of dissatisfaction in private employees is of job security. So, private banks must provide an element of security to employees. Banks can provide conditional job security on fulfillment of certain conditions. Layoff threats are one of the greatest blows to employee loyalty, even among those whose jobs are notimmediately at risk.
  • Long tenure of working in organizations increases the job satisfaction of employees. The Indian middle class women are very protective towards family members, so private sector banks must launch special schemes to safeguard the interests of family members of employees. This may be education facilities for children, pension schemes for employees, accommodation for employees,gratuity, and other retirement benefits.
  • Management of Private sector banks  must create an environment of job security among employees. Indian women work with emotions, so any legal job contract will not motivate them. Instead, there should be a psychological or emotional bond between employees and the organization.

REFERANCES

  1. DivyaNegi, Seema Singh,(2012).Work Life Balance for Banking employees: A       Comparative Study, International Journal Of Research and Commerence&Management ,2(6)
  2. Supriya, N. D. (n.d.). Gender Difference in the Perception of Work-Life Balance.
  3.  Rajesh Bagga, GarimaArora, Sanjeev Arora (2008). Quality of work life:A Comparative study of public sector vs private sector banks, Mangalmayt, Journal Of Management Technology,
  4. Business Today

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