Volumn 1


Nikhil Dhabekar1,Sanket Gore2, Shruti Bhanse3, Shubham Burde4, Souvik Majumdar5,Pranay Bhajbhuje6, Atreyi Chakraborty7
Assistant Professor,Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Department, NIT, Nagpur, India1
Student,Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Department, NIT, Nagpur, India


Speeding is one of the major causes of road accidents, and having an in-vehicle automatic speed limit warning system can help to prevent the number of speeding and accidents, satisfactorily. Current technologies cannot provide satisfactory and consistent performance. This paper seeks to design and automatic real-time speed limit alarm and speed control system. The advent of technology has also increased the traffic hazards and the road accidents take place frequently which causes huge loss of life and property because of the poor emergency facilities. Our project will provide an optimum solution to this draw back.IR sensors are used to detect speed and its output is given to microcontroller which checks whether the speed is within limits. While driving on highways, motorists should not exceed the maximum speed limit permitted for their vehicle. However, accidents keep occurring due to speed violations since the drivers tend to ignore their speedometers. This project comprises of an alarm that warns the driver that he has crossed the primary limit of the city roads, the driver can disable the alarm if he is driving the vehicle on highway and can switch to the highway mode by using the mode selection switch . The maximum speed limit for the highway is fixed to a speed higher than that of city, which at any cost he would not be able to cross, to sustain a safe driving. Moreover, in case of a fatality, the driver would be able to get rescued with the help of GSM, which would be subordinated by a GPS module tracing the location of the car and thereby giving the rescue team apt information of the location of accident. The GPS and GSM will be connected to a piezo sensor and will be activated when collision is above the set value. This project would result in being consumer friendly as it would take care of all the issues the consumer is likely to face namely, energy saving, reduced maintenance costs, increased safety without compromise on security and comfort, complete monitoring and control



The high demand of automobiles has increased the traffic hazards and the road accidents. Life of the people is under high risk. This is because of the lack of best emergency facilities available in our country. An automatic alarm device for vehicle accidents is introduced in this paper.

This design is a system which can detect accidents in significantly less time and sends the basic information to first aid centre within a few seconds covering geographical coordinates, the time and angle in which a vehicle accident had occurred. This alert message is sent to the rescue team in a short time, which will help in saving the valuable lives[2]. A Switch is also provided in order to terminate the sending of a message in rare case where there is no casualty, this can save the precious time of the medical rescue team. When the accident occurs the alert message is sent automatically to the rescue team and to the police station. The message is sent through the GSM module and the location of the accident is detected with the help of the GPS module. The accident can be detected precisely with the help of sensors. The Angle of the rolls over of the car can also be known by the message through the sensors. This application provides the optimum solution to poor emergency facilities provided to the roads accidents in the most feasible way[1].

This project comprises of an alarm that warns the driver that he has crossed the primary limit of the city roads; the driver can disable the alarm if he is driving the vehicle on highway. The maximum speed limit for the highway, at any cost he would not be able to cross, to sustain a safe driving. Moreover, in case of a fatality, the driver would be able to get rescued with the help of GSM, which would be subordinated by a GPS module tracing the location of the car and thereby giving the rescue team apt information of the location of accident. Microcontroller receives the signals from the sensors, and this signal is operated under the control of software which is stored in ROM. Microcontroller AT89S52 continuously monitor the Infrared Receivers, When any object pass through the IR Receiver’s then the IR Rays falling on the receiver’s are obstructed , this obstruction is sensed by the Microcontroller. Communication using infra-red, and avoid those “fake” signals, it is imperative to use a “key” that can tell the receiver what is the real data transmitted and what is fake. As an analogy, looking eye naked to the night sky you can see hundreds of stars, but you can spot easily a far away airplane just by its flashing strobe light.


At present scenario the detection of accident is not so accurate and thus resulting in deaths. Thus research is going on to solve this problem. In this project the detection of vehicle in case of accident can be done by using GPS and GSM. The number on which the message is to be sent is stored in EEPROM of microcontroller, the GPS and GSM are connected to piezo sensor, which on a desired value of collision triggers the GPS and GSM device thus it gives alert stating that accident has occurred.



GSM is used as a media which is used to control and monitor the transformer load from anywhere by sending a message. It has its own deterministic character. Thereby, here GSM is used to monitor and control the DC motor, Stepper motor, Temperature sensor and Solid State Relay by sending a message through GSM modem. Hence no need to waste time by manual operation and transportation. Hence it is considered as highly efficient communication through the mobile which will be useful in industrial controls, automobiles, and appliances which would be controlled from anywhere else. It is also highly economic and less expensive; hence GSM is preferred most for this mode of controlling.[3]


GPS is used in vehicles for both tracking and navigation. Tracking systems enable a base station to keep track of the vehicles without the intervention of the driver where, as navigation system helps the driver to reach the destination. Whether navigation system or tracking system, the architecture is more or less similar. When an accident occurred in any place then GPS system tracks the position of the vehicle and sends the information to the particular person through GSM by alerting the person through SMS or by a call.[3]


In speed control, the speed of the motor is constantly monitored using proximity sensors. The proximity sensor is an IR Transceiver unit which measures the number of rotations of the wheel connected to the motor. The wheel has reflectors attached to its surface. When the reflector comes in line of sight with the IR transceiver, a pulse is produced. By measuring the number of pulses produced by the sensor we can calculate the speed of the motor. By increasing the number of reflectors kept on the wheel we can measure the speed of the motor much faster. The speed thus measured by the sensor is then converted to the required unit and is compared with the limit of speed we assigned. IF the is speed is greater than our limit then microcontroller is used to limit the speed.


A piezoelectric sensor is used as accident detection sensor. A piezoelectric transducer has very high DC output impedance and can be modeled as a proportional voltage source and filter network. The voltage V at the source is directly proportional to the applied force, pressure, or strain. The output signal is then related to this mechanical force as if it had passed through the equivalent circuit.


The basic concept of IR (infrared) obstacle detection is to transmit the IR signal(radiation) in a direction and a signal is received at the IR receiver when the IR radiation bounces back from a surface of the object. The object can be anything which has certain shape and size, the IR LED transmits the IR signal on to the object and the signal is reflected back from the surface of the object. The reflected signals is received by an IR receiver. The IR receiver can be a photodiode / phototransistor or a readymade module which decodes the signal.



1) Transmitter

Fig 1.IR Transmitter

2) Receiver

Fig 2.IR Receiver


The prototype model of an automatic vehicle accident detection and messaging using GSM and GPS modem using microcontroller. Working will be made in the following steps:

  • Complete layout of the whole set up will be drawn in form of a block diagram.
  • A piezoelectric sensor will first sense the occurrence of an accident and give its output to the microcontroller.
  • The GPS detects the latitude and longitudinal position of a vehicle.
  • The latitudes and longitude position of the vehicle is sent as message through the GSM.
  • The phone number is pre-saved in the EEPROM.
  • Whenever an accident has occurred the position is detected and a message has been sent to the pre- saved number.
  • When the speed is found greater than the limit assigned, speed is controlled using relays connected to microcontroller.


The project after completion should be able to give warnings in the form of buzzer or voice message to the driver if he/she exceeds speed limit that is fixed for the vehicle. If the speed further increases above the desired set limit for city and highway the system should activate auto braking system to limit the speed. In case of accident the system should send message via GSM and location of the accident via GPS.


Hence we can conclude that for ensuring the safety of citizen on road this project can be easily implemented on vehicles as it is cheap and easy to maintain. This will firstly give warning if speed is exceeded over the limit assigned to city as well as highway. Thus the warning system in the form of buzzer will help in alerting the driver of overspeeding. Also in case of accidents the GPS and GSM will help in sending alerts so that help can reach to the driver as soon as possible. Thus preventing deaths because of accidents.


  1. Hogema, J. and Horst, R. (1999) “Intelligent Speed Adaptation ISA”: A New Perspective. Proceedings of 12th ICTCT Workshop, Kaiserslautern, Germany, pp. 131-140
  2. “Automatic Vehicle Accident Detection and Messaging System Using GSM and GPS Modem” C.Prabha , R.Sunitha , R.Anitha,IJAREEIE,VOL 3 ,ISSUE 7,JULY 2014
  3. “Automatic Vehicle Accident Detection and Messaging System Using GSM and GPS Modem” IJAREEIE,VOL 3 ,ISSUE 7,JULY 2014
  4. Joshué Pérez, Fernando Seco, Vicente Milanés, Antonio Jiménez, Julio C. Díaz and Teresa de Pedro, “An RFID based Intelligent Vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals and sensors 2010,10,5872- 5888;doi:10.3390/s100605872”
  5. Ankita Mishra, Jyoti Solanki, Harshala Bakshi, Priyanka Saxena,Pranav Paranjpe: “Design of RF based speed control system for Vehicles” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering Vol. 1, Issue 8, October 2012

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