STRENGTH AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING QUARRY ROCK DUST AS FINE AGGREGATE
Volumn 1

STRENGTH AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING QUARRY ROCK DUST AS FINE AGGREGATE

Hemant B. Dahake
MTech in Structural Engineering,
Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering Nagpur, 2009-2010.

Abstract:

Common river sand is expensive due to excessive cost of transportation from natural sources. Also large-scale depletion of these sources creates environmental problems. As environmental transportation and other constraints make the availability and use of river sand less attractive, a substitute or replacement product for concrete industry needs to be found. River sand is most commonly used fine aggregate in the production of concrete poses the problem of acute shortage in many areas. Whose continued use has started posing serious problems with respect to its availability, cost and environmental impact. In such a situation the Quarry rock dust can be an economic alternative to the river sand. Quarry Rock Dust can be defined as residue, tailing or other non-voluble waste material after the extraction and processing of rocks to form fine particles less than 4.75mm. Usually, Quarry Rock Dust is used in large scale in the highways as a surface finishing material and also used for manufacturing of hollow blocks and lightweight concrete prefabricated Elements. Use of Quarry rock dust as a fine aggregate in concrete draws serious attention of researchers and investigators. This report presents the feasibility of the usage of Rock Quarry Dust as up to fifty five percent substitutes for Natural Sand in concrete. Mix design has been developed for M-25 grade using IS design approach for both conventional concrete and quarry dust concrete. Tests were conducted on cubes to study the strength of concrete made up of Quarry Rock Dust and the results were compared with the Natural Sand Concrete. An attempt has also been made to durability studies on Quarry Rock Dust when compared with the Natural Sand concrete. It is found that the compressive strength of concrete made of Quarry Rock Dust is nearly 5% more than the conventional concrete.

INTRODUCTION

Concrete is the most widely used versatile building material all over the world. Concrete technology has made significant advances in recent years which results in economical improvement of the strength of concrete. This economical development depends upon the intelligent use of the locally available materials. One of the important constituent of conventional concrete is natural sand, which is expensive and scarce. Sand, as one of the most accessible natural resources, has been used mostly as a construction material since the earliest days of civilization. It is defined as “continuously graded unconsolidated material (sediment) present on the earth’s surface as a result of the natural disintegration of rocks”.

In the future, prices are expected to rise due to decrease in sand deposits, quality and more environmental and land use regulations, which are associated with the rapid urban expansion that contributes to these shortages. Therefore, the importance of finding substitute sources of fine aggregate for mortar production that can be used in place of natural river sand cannot be overemphasized. Due to booming of construction activities in our country, natural sand resources are increasingly depleted and its cost is becoming increasingly high. To this effect, this project is carried out to study the prospects of the uses of manufactured sand in our country. In this project, initially use the IS code : 383-1970 for the general properties of fine and course aggregates and IS : 9013-1978 for the mix design and use quarry rock dust from stone grinder near Higna. The sieve analysis of rock quarry dust and fine aggregate to determining the zone of sand. After knowing the specific zone of sand the quarry dust mix with sand to maintain the zones with the proportion of 15% & 25% for zone III 35% & 45% for zone II & 55% for zone I. Finally results of compressive strengths at 1,7,21 and 28 days will be compared.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Cement

1) Ordinary Portland Cement (43 Grade) with 28 percent normal consistency Conforming to IS: 8112- 1989 [3] was used. Rock quarry dust:- Quarry fines from crushing and screening Crushed rock aggregate quarrying generates

considerable volumes of quarry fines, often termed ‘quarry dust’. The Quarry Rock Dust obtained from local resource near Higna, Nagpur was used in concrete to cast cubes. The physical properties of sand & Quarry Rock Dust obtained by testing the samples as per Indian Standards are listed in Table:-1.

Table No 1 :- physical properties of sand & Quarry Rock

PropertyRock quarry dustNatural sandTest method
Specific gravity2.60-2.652.65IS 2386(III)1963
Water absorption1%-1.2%1%IS 2386(III)1963
Moisture contentNil1%IS 2386(III)1963
Sieve analysisNo zoneIIIIS383-1970

Sand:- Sand passing through 2.36 mm IS sieve as per IS 456: 2000. fineness Modulus (FM) of 2.51 was used. The specific gravity was found to be 2.6.

Coarse aggregate:-Natural aggregate having density of 2700kg/m3 and fineness modules (FM) of 6.80 was used. The specific gravity was found to be 2.60 and water absorption as 0.45%.

Mix designMix design is a process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relatives quantities with the object of producing as economically as possible concrete of desired workability, strength, durability and resistance to environmental attack

Design Stipulations

  • Grade of Concrete :-M 25
  • Material Supplied/ Required :-River Sand
  • CoarseAggregate:- MSA – 20 mm,MSA-10 mm
  • Cement :-Cement ( O.P.C. ) 53 Grade,
NoDesign ParametersGrade of Concrete M 25
aTarget Mean Compressive Strength at 28 days2 34 N/mm
bDegree of Quality ControlGood
cMax. Free Water-Cement Ratio0.50
dDegree of WorkabilityMedium & C.F. = 0.92
eType of ExposureMild
fMaximum Size of Aggregate20 mm ( Angular )
gAmount of Entrapped Air2 %

TEST DATA OF MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR MIX DESIGN

I.S. Sieve Size mmPercent Passing for Single Size AggregatePercentage of Different Fractions of Aggregate of SizeRemarks
20mm10mm6mm20mm 6010mm 356 mm 5Combined 100
4010010010060355100Combined % Passing of 20 mm size graded aggregate is conforming to Table 2 of IS : 383 -1970
2010010010060355100
100100100035540
4.75001000055
2.360000000

Target Strength For Mix Design

 f  t  sck ck

Target Mean Strength for M 25 Grade Concrete

  • For Good Degree of Quality Control
  • As per Table 1 and 2 of IS : 10262 – 1982
  • Standard Deviation, s = 5.3 N/ mm2 and
  • Tolerance Factor, t = 1.65 fck = 25 + 1.65 x 5.3 = 34 Mpa
  • ( Ultratech ) (From F – Curve of Fig. 2 of IS:10262 –1982 )
  • Free Water-Cement Ratio = 0.49 (Required for Target Mean Strength of 34 N/mm2 for M 25 Grade Concrete)
  • For moderate ExposureCondition
  • Maximum Free Water – Cement Ratio = 0.50
  • Hence Lower Value of W/c Ratio = 0.49 is adopted
Design Mix Proportion for M 25 Grade Concrete
WaterCement : OPC – 53 Gr.Fine Aggregate ( Sand )Coarse Aggregate
191.58 l390.97 kg554 kg1232 kg
W/C = 0.4911.413.15

Quantities Required for the Mix per bag of OPC – 53 Gr.

  • Water : 24.50 l
  • Cement : 50 kg
  • Fine Aggregate( Sand )71 kg
  • Coarse Aggregate : 157.74 kg

TEST SPECIMENS AND TEST PROCEDURE

The 150 mm size concrete cubes used as test specimens. To determine the compressive strength. The specimens were cast for M 25 grade with 0%,15%,25%,35%,45%,55% Rock quarry dust and  for  coarse aggregates of maximum size 20 mm is used. The work ability of fresh concrete was measured in terms of slump values, V-B time and compaction  factor.  The properties of fresh concrete were measured according to IS: 1199- 1959. The ingredients of concrete were thoroughly mixed in mixer machine till uniform consistency is achieved. The cubes are compacted on a vibrating table

Compressive strength is obtained as per IS: 516-1959.

Experimentation of replacement of sand with quarry dust in concrete, in various proportions

various proportions

Day’sQuarry Dust (% replacement of river sand)
35%45%55%15%25%
ZONEIIIIIIIIIII
1 DaySeries 1Series 2Series 3Series 4Series5
7 Day’sSeries 1Series 2Series 3Series 4Series5
21 Day’sSeries 1Series 2Series 3Series 4Series5
28 Day’sSeries 1Series 2Series 3Series 4Series5
Acc curingSeries 1Series 2Series 3Series 4Series5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Fineness modulus:-

  1. The fineness modulus for fine aggregate using natural sand was found to be 2.51
  2. The fineness modulus for fine aggregate using Rock quarry dust was found to be 3.15
  3. The fineness modulus for fine aggregate using Rock quarry dust was found to be 6.8

Consistency, the initial setting time and final setting time:-

For ordinary Portland cement sample, the normal consistency, the initial setting time and final setting time is observed as below,

  • The normal consistency for the tested cement was found be 35%.
  • The initial setting time was found to be 73 minutes.
  • The final setting time was found to be 355 minutes

Workability of concrete :-

Quarry dust %Slump mmCompacting FactorV.B. Time in sec
0600.915 sec
15500.904 sec
25300.843 sec
35400.897 sec
45500.905 sec
55400.806 sec

Result of Compressive Strength of concrete cubes

Test Result for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes of M 25 Grade achieved in the Laboratory for one day and seven curing. The mixing proportion of quarry rock dust is to be taken as 0%,15%,25%

  Free W/c RatioDesign Mix Proportion of M 25 Grade Concrete Compressive Strength At 1-Days Curing N/mm2Compressive Strength At 7-Days Curing N/mm2
Slump mm% of quarry dust
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.1560012.8827.80
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.1560012.4425.30
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.1560013.3324.50
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15601512.8824.44
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15601513.7725.55
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15601513.3425.77
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15502511.1122.00
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15502512.8822.22
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15502510.6624.88

Test Result for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes of M 25 Grade achieved in the Laboratory for one day and seven curing. The mixing proportion of quarry rock dust is to be taken as35%,45%,55%.

Free W/c RatioDesign Mix Proportion of M 25 Grade Concrete Compressive Strength At 1-Days Curing N/mm2Compressive Strength At 7-Days Curing N/mm2
Slump mm% of quarry dust
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15503511.1124.88
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15503512.0025.77
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15503512.4425.55
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.1550459.3322.66
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15504511.1123.11
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15504510.6621.55
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.1540559.7722.88
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15405511.1120.44
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15405512.0021.33

Test Result for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes of M 25 Grade achieved in the Laboratory for Accelerated curing, twenty one days and twenty eight days curing. The mixing proportion of quarry rock dust is to be taken as 0%, 15%, 25%.

  Free W/cR atioDesign Mix Proportion of M 25 Grade Concrete by Mass Comp Strength Accelerated Curing N/mm2Comp Strength At 21-Days Curing N/mm2Comp Strength At 28-Days Curing N/mm2
Slump mm% of quarry dust
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15600028.8834.20
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15600028.6635.10
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15600029.7734.66
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15601528.8831.1132.44
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15601529.5531.7732.22
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15601527.7730.4432.44
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15502529.7731.1133.33
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15502528.6633.3334.66

Test Result for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes of M 25 Grade achieved in the Laboratory for Accelerated curing, twenty one days and twenty eight days curing. The mixing proportion of quarry rock dust is to be taken as 35%, 45%, 55%.

  Free W/c RatioDesign Mix Proportion of M 25 Grade Concrete by Mass Comp Strength Accelerated Curing N/mm2Comp Strength At 21-Days Curing N/mm2Comp Strength At 28- Days Curing N/mm2
  Slump mm% of quarry dust
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15503531.1131.7736.00
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15503528.8830.6635.11
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.1550353232.4436.22
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.1550452428.8833.33
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15504526.6630.2236.22
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15504525.3331.1133.11
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15405530.2229.5532.88
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15405532.4428.8832.66
0.491 : 1.41 : 3.15405530.4427.7734..00

GRAPH

Graph for sieve analysis of the fine aggregate

Graph for sieve analysis of the Rock quarry dust

Graph for the result of workability of concrete Slump test :-

Compacting factor test :-

V.B Test for workability :-

Graph shows the comparison between normal concrete and quarry dust concrete. The replacement of quarry dust is 15%

Graph shows the comparison between normal concrete and quarry dust concrete. The replacement of quarry dust is 25%

Graph shows the comparison between normal concrete and quarry dust concrete. The replacement of quarry dust is 35%

Graph shows the comparison between normal concrete and quarry dust concrete. The replacement of quarry dust is 45%

Graph shows the comparison between normal concrete and quarry dust concrete. The replacement of quarry dust is 55%

Comparison of compressive strength on different days & percentage

DURABILITY STUDIES

The objective of this durability study was to investigate the drying and shrinkage studies, deterioration, and water absorption studies for both Conventional Concrete and Quarry Rock Dust concrete as per code l provisions

Above all method will adapt to determining the durability of concrete after confirming one mix is to be satisfy all criteria for better  concrete after confirming one mix is to be satisfy all criteria for better  concrete like work ability, strength of concrete.

In this research the 35% Rock quarry dust mix was fulfill all the criteria as compare to conventional concrete, so I will going further studies of durability with this mix .Because of binding of time limit I will left this small portion durability property of concrete for the future scope.

CONCLUSION

  • Work ability of concrete decreases with increases the percentage of Quarry dust.
  • The replacement of rock quarry dust with sand up to 35% gives slightly more compressive strength compare to conventional concrete
  • The replacement of Rock quarry dust goes above 35% the compressive strength of concrete is decreases
  • In this research the accelerated curing was used but it dose not give the correct result of compressive strength as compared to 28 days curing. It gives result of 21 days curing approximately
  • While using the rock quarry dust as a fine aggregate in the concrete the specific gravity of rock quarry dust &fine aggregate should be nearly equal to the fine aggregate otherwise you should prepare different mix design.
  • The Rock quarry dust are made by crushing aggregate to sizes appropriate for use as a fine material. During the crushing process the quarry dust have irregular shapes & more fine particles contributing to improved compressive strength by better inter facial bond as compared to natural sand.
  • Rock quarry dust offers important economic and ecologic advantages in regions where the availability of natural sand is scarce or in cities  where transportation cost is high.
  • The use of Rock quarry dust in the construction industry helps to prevent unnecessary damages to the environment & provide optimum exploitation of the resources.
  • The Rock quarry dust improve compressive strength of concrete to replace it up to certain limit i.e. 35%
  • The Rock quarry dust have some powdered material it  affect strength of concrete so before use of it grading must be done to achieve the maximum strength of concrete

REFERENCES:-

  1. Neville A M, 1994, Properties of Concrete, Prentice Hall Ltd
  2. IS:383- 1970:-  Specification coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete (Second revision)
  3. IS:9013-1978:- Methods  of making, curing and determining compressive  strength of accelerated- cured concrete test specimen
  4. Is:10262-1982:- Recommended guideline for concrete mix design
  5. M. S. Shetty , M. L. Gambhir Concrete Technology
  6. S.C. Maiti, Raj K. Agarwal and Rajeeb Kumar, Concrete  mix proportioning, December 2006 * The Indian Concrete Journal
  7. Shewaferaw Dinku Belay, The Use of Manufactured Sand in Concrete Production: Test Results and Cost Comparison. July 2006 , Addis Ababa University School Of Graduate Studies
  8. M R Chitlange,(Ms) R S Bang,Dr P S Pajgade, Appraisal of Artificial Sand Concrete, January 11, 2010, IE(I) Journal–CV
  9. U.De S. Jayawardena1 & D.M.S. Dissanayake2 ,Use of quarry dust instead of river sand for future constructions in Sri Lanka, The Geological Society of London 2006 , IAEG2006 Paper number 38
  10. M. Shahul Hameed and A. S. S. Sekar2 Properties Of Green Concrete Containing Quarry Rock Dust And Marble Sludge Powder As Fine Aggregate, Vol. 4, No. 4, June 2009, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
  11. Prachoom Khamput1, A Study of Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Quarry Dust as Fine Aggregate and Mixing With Admixture Type E, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, Thailand

 

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